Part I Can be read from here:- https://upsctree.com/must-read-sdg-index-2021-and-the-performance-of-india-states-part-i/
SDG 10 REDUCED INEQUALITIES Reduce inequality within and among countries
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The Goal calls for progressively reducing not only income inequalities but also inequalities-of-outcome by ensuring access to equal opportunities and promoting social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or any other status relevant within a society. It also aims at enhancing representation and voice for developing countries in decision making in international economic and financial institutions.
SDG 11 SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 11 promotes inclusive and sustainable urbanisation. Making cities sustainable means creating career and business opportunities, safe and affordable housing, and building resilient societies and economies. It involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in participatory and inclusive ways.
SDG 12 RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
The Goal emphasises on “doing more with less” thus promoting resource efficiency, green economies and sustainable infrastructure. It also focusses on reducing degradation and pollution and minimising waste. The efficient management of our shared natural resources and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants are important targets to achieve this Goal. It calls for awareness generation and dissemination on sustainable development, lifestyles and practices.
SDG 13 CLIMATE ACTION Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
The Goal is aimed at integrating climate change measures, disaster risk measures and sustainable natural resource management into national development strategies. To minimise the human impact of geophysical disasters, the Goal calls for strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, including human and institutional capacity on mitigation, adaptation, and early warning. Efforts at the national level – for adopting green technologies, promoting the use of clean and modern source of energy, advocating for behavioural change for sustainable use of resources, have to be complemented by international cooperation on climate change since the causes and effects of climate change transcend national boundaries.
SDG 14 LIFE BELOW WATER Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life, drive global systems that make the earth habitable for humankind. Goal 14 commits countries to conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources. It focuses on preventing marine pollution, ending illegal and destructive fishing practices, and sustainably managing and protecting marine and coastal ecosystems while increasing scientific knowledge, research, and transfer of marine technology to improve marine health.
SDG 15 LIFE ON LAND Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
The Goal is aimed at protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems; sustainable management of forests; combating desertification; and halting and reversing land degradation in conjunction with integrating ecosystems and biodiversity into national and local planning. It also seeks to promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic resources, and prevent poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna.
SDG 16 PEACE, JUSTICE AND STRONG INSTITUTIONS Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Peace, stability and effective governance based on rule-of-law and upholding the principles of equality, human rights and justice are prerequisites for sustainable development. The 2030 Agenda aims to significantly reduce all forms of violence, and work with governments and communities to end conflict and insecurity. Promoting rule-of-law and human rights are key to this process, as are reducing the flow of illicit arms and strengthening the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance. Goal 16 also focuses on ending abuse, exploitation, trafficking, corruption and bribery, and in the development of accountable and transparent institutions.
SDG 17 PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE GOALS Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
In the last decade, India’s role in development cooperation and partnership, especially at the global level, has undergone notable transformation. India has actively contributed to crafting of policy coalitions that offer a forum and platform for countries of the Global South as well as the North for cooperation on multiple fronts, such as ISA (International Solar Alliance); CDRI (Coalition for Disaster Resilience Infrastructure); BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) and its New Development Bank; IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa); India-Africa Forum Summit; India-PSIDS; India-CARICOM; the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) etc. Working towards global partnership has, therefore, assumed considerable importance as a policy imperative for the country.