Three-dimensional transport is the hero our civilisation deserves, and quite frankly, the one it (desperately) needs right now, given the traffic volumes!
However, there are several problems that need to be worked out first.
Three-dimensional transport – sounds like an idea straight out of a science-fiction book, isn’t it? Well, to be honest, the concept was indeed popularised by a science-fiction film in the late 1980s.
But what exactly is three-dimensional transport? It refers to vehicles travelling in a third direction, or along a third axis – up and down, sideways and forward or backwards. Flying cars, for example. Or cars moving through tunnels.
Our transport sector globally is largely two-dimensional. It is horizontal – vehicles either go straight or sideways. Three-dimensional transport is normally limited to aircraft, but even there, the third dimension is largely restricted to take-offs and landings, with the rest of the motion being limited to two dimensions.
We have come close to seeing three-dimensional, or 3D, transport – even if only in fiction. The concept came to light prominently in the 1989 sci-fi film, Back To The Future Part-II, which showed the then future (2015) as a year with flying vehicles which could take off and land anywhere.
Closer to reality, Uber is working on a flying car concept that is rumoured to be ready by 2020, while Elon Musk’s Tesla Company is working on a system of underground tunnels with entry and exit systems for high-speed travel.
But we need to ask: Are we prepared for 3D transport?
Our administration is not too enthused with the idea, especially in India.
In 2014, a pizza chain in Mumbai named Francesco’s claimed to have delivered pizza using a drone, and presented video footage of it as well. What followed was very predictable – Mumbai Police launched an investigation. Reason? Security concerns and permits from the relevant authorities, while justified, opened up a Pandora’s Box of questions, for anyone with access to a drone could do a whole variety of things with it to, say, attack others or for voyeurism. Even the Islamic State is reported to be attacking targets using grenade-lobbing drones.
At the ground level, things are different. A man shot down a drone flying over his property in Kentucky, and the court said he was well within his rights to do so. With devices like DroneGun, people can jam these devices mid-air, causing them to crash. These devices are also capable of blocking GPS and its Russian equivalent, GLONASS, reportsWired. Imagine if someone with such a device shot down a flying car.
For terrestrial, ground-based transport, the situation is similar. In Mumbai, flyovers and skywalks come with ‘view cutters’ to protect the privacy of buildings in the vicinity. While privacy is indeed important, and residents have the right to demand such measures, imagine the scenario with flying vehicles. You can’t fly over buildings that don’t give permission for it, making way for streets in the air. You can’t fly below or above another vehicle if there is a privacy concern.
The case is not too different for underground systems. Tunnelling, by nature, poses a myriad of problems, such as underground utilities, rock strata and weak foundations of older buildings. Further, if access to groundwater reserves is affected, that is another problem. Then, there is the problem of ventilation, oxygen supply and flushing out pollutants.
Security, the major concern, is not something to be overlooked. Both going up and down near a defence installation poses a risk. The second runway at Mumbai airport is not in active use because the path of the flight would take it over the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, which is a restricted flying zone. Imagine: flying cars around an air force base, and someone tosses out a grenade from the sky. Not a rosy scene. The same is the case in civilian areas.
We are not yet ready for 3D transport systems. There are numerous problems that need to be resolved before we venture into that area. While Uber and SpaceX can work on getting people there, the rest of us need to actively find solutions to the problems they could pose. After all, how long are we going to be stuck in traffic?
Note – There is a larger debate behind this issue , one of the prominent ethical issue being usage of UAV/drone technology in warfare or Defense. Everyone knwos what can be done with an UAV, but the question is whether every action that can be done with an UAV is ethical and more so is it legal ? and above all how to define, restrict and appropriately permit the usage of UAV has been a thorny issues before policy makers. How to regulate is the key question apart from the ethical dimensions of usages of UAV/drone. We will be publishing some well-researched and thoughtful articles on ethical dimension of this issue.( Post-Prelims)
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.