News Snippet

News 1: Shrinking biodiversity: 69% drop in wildlife populations in nearly 5 decades 

News 2: Biden’s security strategy focuses on China, Russia

News 3: World Sloth bear day

News 4: Cooperative Act amendments cleared

News 5: No more indictment under Section 66A of IT Act: Supreme Court

News 6: Tamil Nadu notifies India’s first slender loris sanctuary

News 7: Red Corner notice

News 8: Languages panel recommendations

Other important news:
  1. PM – DevINE
  2. SALT Project of Andhra
  3. Jayaprakash Narayan: The man, the movement and his protégés
  4. Nanaji Deshmukh
  5. Tana Bhagat Movement
  6. E-rupee
  7. Modhera to be declared first solar-powered village
  8. Indian Astronomical Observatory in Hanle, Ladakh

News 1: Shrinking biodiversity: 69% drop in wildlife populations in nearly 5 decades 


Monitored wildlife populations — including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish — have seen a 69-per cent drop between 1970 and 2018, according to the latest Living Planet Report, released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). And India is no different.

Data in the Living Planet report

  • The biennial report, produced by the Zoological Society of London, measures how species are responding to pressure in the environment due to biodiversity loss and climate change.
  • This year’s report has tracked 32,000 species populations of 5,230 species, with 838 species and just over 11,000 new populations added. There has been a significant increase in the number of fish species (481) that have been added to the Living Planet Report.
  • Stating that there has been “an average 69% decline in monitored wildlife populations over the 48-year period” up to 2018, the report stated:
  • Latin America and the Caribbean regions have seen the largest decline of monitored wildlife populations globally, with an average decline of 94% between 1970 and 2018. During the same period, monitored populations in Africa plummeted by 66%, while Asia Pacific’s monitored populations fell by 55%.”
  • The WWF has found that freshwater populations have declined the most, with an average 83% decline between 1970 and 2018. The IUCN Red List shows cycads — an ancient group of seed plants — are the most threatened species, while corals are declining the fastest, followed by amphibians.
Read more about Cycads


  • The report noted: “Around the world…the main drivers of wildlife population decline are habitat degradation and loss, exploitation, the introduction of invasive species, pollution, climate change and disease.
  • Land-use change is still the biggest current threat to nature, destroying or fragmenting the natural habitats of many plant and animal species on land, in freshwater and in the sea. However, if we are unable to limit warming to 1.5°C, climate change is likely to become the dominant cause of biodiversity loss in the coming decades.”
  • “Rising temperatures are already driving mass mortality events, as well as the first extinction of an entire species. Every degree of warming is expected to increase these losses and the impact they have on people,’’ said the report.
  • About 50% of warm water corals have already been lost and a warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius will lead to a loss of 70-90% warm water corals. The Bramble Cay melomys, a small Australian rodent, was declared extinct after sea-level rise.
  • Despite their importance, mangroves continue to be deforested by aquaculture, agriculture and coastal development at a rate of 0.13% annually, the report noted. It stated that many mangroves are degraded by over-exploitation and pollution, alongside natural stressors such as storms and coastal erosion.
  • “Mangrove loss represents the loss of habitat for biodiversity and the loss of ecosystem services for coastal communities, and in some locations it can mean the loss of the very land where coastal communities live.
  • For instance, 137 km of the Sundarbans mangrove forest have been eroded since 1985, reducing land and ecosystem services for many of the 10 million people who live there,’’ the report pointed out.
  • While overall mangrove loss is declining, the study finds that there remains hotspots of mangrove loss, particularly in Myanmar.
  • Only 37% of rivers that are over 1,000 km long remain free-flowing, or in their natural state, including rivers in India that are largely no longer free-flowing. This, the report noted, has threatened migration of fish.
  • The Living Planet Report has found that agriculture is the most prevalent threat to amphibians (animals that live both on land and in water), whereas hunting and trapping are most likely to threaten birds and mammals.
  • Geographically, Southeast Asia is the region where species are most likely to face threats at a significant level, while the Polar regions and the east coast of Australia and South Africa showed the highest impact probabilities for climate change, driven in particular by impact on birds.
  • The global abundance of 18 of 31 oceanic sharks have declined by 71% over the last 50 years, and the report said that by 2020 three-quarters of sharks and rays were threatened with extinction.

News 2: Biden’s security strategy focuses on China, Russia


The Biden administration has said that maintaining a competitive edge over China and constraining Russia are priorities for the U.S. strategy, as it released the administration’s first National Security Strategy recently.

National Security Strategy of the USA

The document — which every administration is required to release, by law — was delayed due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. It lists great power competition and transnational challenges as the two premises on which the strategy is built. The strategy is based on “building strength at home” as well as building coalitions abroad to deal with the challenges.

Indo Pacific

  • On the Indo-Pacific, the document says as India is the world’s largest democracy and a Major Defense Partner (of the U.S.), the two countries “will work together, bilaterally and multilaterally, to support our shared vision of a free and open Indo-Pacific.”
  • On U.S. alliances, the strategy says they have played a critical role and calls for a deepening and modernisation of these associations, a range of which are listed, including the Quad. It says the “revitalised Quad” which includes the U.S., India, Australia and Japan, had addressed regional challenges and “demonstrated its ability to deliver” for the Indo Pacific on fighting COVID-19, cybersecurity and “promoting high standards for infrastructure and health security”.
  • It says the Quad and AUKUS — a security relationship between Australia, the U.K. and the U.S. — will be crucial in addressing global challenges as well as encouraging tighter linkages between America’s Asian and European allies.

News 3: World Sloth bear day


The first World Sloth Bear Day was observed to generate awareness and strengthen conservation efforts around the unique bear species.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has declared October 12 as the ‘World Sloth Bear Day’

Sloth bear

  • IUCN status: Vulnerable
  • Distribution: The bear is endemic to Indian subcontinent. 90% of species population is found in India and small population found in Nepal and Sri Lanka.
  • Sloth bears were omnivorous and survived on termites, ants and fruits.
  • Wildlife Protection Act of India, 1972: Under schedule I and has the same level of protection as tigers, rhinos and elephants


Wildlife SOS, an organisation rescued and rehabilitated over hundreds of “performing dancing bears, thereby resolving a 400-year-old barbaric tradition (of dancing bears) while also providing alternative livelihoods to the nomadic Kalandar community.

Kalanders are Madaris ( Nomadic). it is believed that in the 12th Century, Zalali Kalandar community members came to Punjab through Multan in now-Pakistan.

After the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 came into force in India, it hit the livelihood of the nomadic madari community known for its public performances with live animals.

News 4: Cooperative Act amendments cleared


The Union Cabinet approved an amendment to the cooperative societies law aimed at making the governance of multi-State cooperative societies more democratic, transparent and accountable.

Multi-State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill, 2022

  • The Multi-State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill, 2022, incorporates the provisions of the 97th Constitution Amendment which gave Constitutional status and protection to cooperative societies and made the right to form cooperative societies a fundamental right (Article 19).
  • The amendments ensure provisions for setting up a cooperative election authority, an information officer and an ombudsman.

News 5: No more indictment under Section 66A of IT Act: Supreme Court


The Supreme Court ordered States and their police forces to stop prosecuting free speech on social media under Section 66A of the Information Technology Act which was declared unconstitutional by the court in a judgment seven years ago.

The court found it both “distressing” and “terrible” that the police had continued to pick out people and prosecute them under the draconian Section regardless of the fact that the highest court in the country had struck down the law as “vague” and “chilling”.

However, the court clarified that this direction would apply only to a charge under Section 66A and not extend to other offences in a case.

Police powers

In March 2015, the Supreme Court had found the police powers of Section 66A too wide with scant respect for individual liberty and free expression on the Internet.

Section 66A had prescribed three years’ imprisonment if a social media message caused “annoyance” or was found “grossly offensive”. The court had concluded the provision to be vague and worded arbitrarily.

What does the Information Technology Act, 2000 provide for?

The IT Act, 2000 provides for legal recognition for transactions through electronic communication. The Act also penalizes various forms of cybercrime. The Act was amended in 2009 to insert a new section, Section 66A which was said to address cases of cybercrime with the advent of technology and the internet.

What did Section 66(A) of the IT Act say?

It criminalizes the sending of offensive messages through a computer or communication devices. Under this provision, any person who by means of a computer or communication device sends any information that is:

Grossly offensive; False and meant for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred or ill-will; meant to deceive or mislead the recipient about the origin of such messages, etc., shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 3 years and with fine.

News 6: Tamil Nadu notifies India’s first slender loris sanctuary


In a first in the country, the Tamil Nadu government notified the Kaduvur Slender Loris Sanctuary covering 11,806 hectares in Karur and Dindigul districts.

Slender Loris

  • Slender lorises, which are small nocturnal mammals, are arboreal as they spend most of their life on trees.
  • The species acts as a biological predator of pests in agricultural crops and benefits farmers.
  • Listed as an endangered species by the IUCN, slender loris has a wide range of ecological roles in the terrestrial ecosystem.

Habitat improvement

The sanctuary will cover Vedasandur, Dindigul East and Natham taluks in Dindigul district and Kadavur taluk in Karur district.

In significant steps towards conservation of wildlife, the

  1. Tamil Nādu State government notified India’s first Dugong Conservation Reserve in the Palk Bay,
  2. Kazhuveli bird sanctuary in Villupuram,TN
  3. Nanjarayan Tank birds sanctuary in Tiruppur
  4. State’s fifth elephant reserve at Agasthyamalai in Tirunelveli.

Further, 13 wetlands were declared as Ramsar sites. These path-breaking initiatives in 15 months have put Tamil Nadu at a pivotal position in the field of conservation.

News 7: Red Corner notice


The Interpol has rejected a second request by India to issue a Red Corner Notice against Gurpatwant Singh Pannun, the Canada-based founder and legal advisor of the pro-Khalistan outfit Sikhs for Justice (SFJ), whom the Union Ministry of Home Affairs has listed as a “terrorist” under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).

What is the Interpol?

  • Type: Intergovernmental organization
  • Members: 195 countries
  • Headquarters: Lyon, France
  • The Interpol, or International Criminal Police Organization, helps police forces in all these countries to better coordinate their actions.
  • Interpol has a National Central Bureau (NCB) in each member country, which is the central point of contact for both the general secretariat and the other NCBs around the world. Each NCB is run by police officials of that country, and usually sits in the government ministry responsible for policing. (Home Ministry in India.)
  • Interpol manages 19 police databases with information on crimes and criminals (from names and fingerprints to stolen passports), accessible in real-time to countries. It also offers investigative support such as forensics, analysis, and assistance in locating fugitives around the world, according to the Interpol website.

What is a Red Notice?

  • Criminals or suspects often flee to other countries to evade facing justice. A Red Corner Notice, or Red Notice (RN) alerts police forces across the world about fugitives who are wanted internationally.
  • Interpol says “Red Notices are issued for fugitives wanted either for prosecution or to serve a sentence. A Red Notice is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action.
  • An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country. The fugitives may be wanted for prosecution or to serve a sentence. The country issuing the request need not be the home country of the fugitive; Interpol acts on the request of a country where the alleged crime has been committed.

Is an RN a warrant of arrest?

  • An RN is only an international wanted persons’ notice; it is not an international arrest warrant.
  • Interpol itself does not want individuals; they are wanted by a country or an international tribunal.
  • This means the Interpol cannot compel law enforcement authorities in any country to arrest the subject of an RN.
  • It is up to individual member countries to decide what legal value to give to an RN, and the authority of their national law enforcement officers to make arrests.
  • The Interpol argues that an RN is issued only after a competent court has taken cognisance of a chargesheet against the fugitive.

News 8: Languages panel recommendations


The 11th volume of the Report of the Official Language Committee headed by Home Minister Amit Shah, which was submitted to President Droupadi Murmu last month, has triggered angry reactions from the Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, who have described the Report as an attempt by the Union government to impose Hindi on non-Hindi-speaking states.

What is this language panel led by Amit Shah?

The Committee of Parliament on Official Language was set up in 1976 under Section 4 of The Official Languages Act, 1963.

Section 4 of the Act says, “there shall be constituted a Committee on Official language, on a resolution to that effect being moved in either House of Parliament with the previous sanction of the President and passed by both Houses”.

The Committee is chaired by the Union Home Minister, and has, in accordance with the provisions of the 1963 Act, 30 members — 20 MPs from Lok Sabha and 10 MPs from Rajya Sabha.

The job of the Committee is to review the progress made in the use of Hindi for official purposes, and to make recommendations to increase the use of Hindi in official communications.

Under the provisions of the 1963 Act, the panel submits its report to the President, who “shall [then] cause the report to be laid before each House of Parliament and sent to all the State Governments”.

Are these recommendations intended for every state government, its institutions and departments across the country?

“No, they are not,” senior BJD MP and deputy chairman of the Committee Bhartruhari Mahtab told “The reaction of the Chief Ministers of Kerala and Tamil Nadu appear to be based on misleading information, as some reports that appeared on the Committee’s recommendations were confusing,” Mahtab said.

According to Mahtab, “States like Tamil Nadu and Kerala are exempt as per The Official Languages Act, 1963 and the Rules and Regulations (of the Act), 1976. The law is implemented only in ‘A’ category states, in which the official language is Hindi.

According to the Rules, region ‘A’ includes the states of Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, and the Union Territories of Delhi and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Region ‘B’ includes Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Punjab, and the Union Territories of Chandigarh, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Other states, where the use of Hindi is less than 65 per cent, are listed under region ‘C’.

The Committee has suggested that efforts should be made to use Hindi “100 per cent” in the ‘A’ states. The medium of instruction in IITs, central universities, and Kendriya Vidyalayas in the ‘A’ states should be Hindi, while the regional language should be used in other states, the Committee is learnt to have recommended.

Is this the first time that such recommendations have been made?

The makers of the Constitution had decided that both Hindi and English should be used as official languages for the first 15 years of the Republic, but in the wake of intense anti-Hindi agitations in the south, the Centre announced that English would continue to be used even after 1965. On January 18, 1968, Parliament passed the Official Language Resolution to build a comprehensive programme to increase the use of Hindi for official purposes by the Union of India.

With the active promotion of Hindi being mandated by Article 351 of the Constitution, the Official Language Committee was set up to review and promote the use of Hindi in official communications. The first Report of the Committee was submitted in 1987. The ninth Report, submitted in 2011 by the panel headed by then Home Minister P Chidambaram, made 117 recommendations, including suggestions to increase the use of Hindi in computers in government offices.

“The Committee recommends that all Ministries/Departments should immediately provide facilities of bilingual computers and should train officials…so that they can work in Hindi also…,” the Chidambaram-led panel said. The recommendations were criticised, and concerns were expressed in Tamil Nadu especially over the alleged “Hindi imposition”.

What does the new education policy say about teaching in Hindi and other regional languages?

The announcement of the new National Education Policy (NEP) in 2020 too had triggered controversy over this issue.

The NEP says that mother tongue or the regional language would be the “preferred” mode of instruction until Class 5, and possibly Class 8.

Other important news

PM – DevINE : Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North East Region

PM-DevINE, a new scheme was announced in the Union Budget 2022-23 to address development gaps in the North-Eastern Region (NER).

MDevINE is an additionality to the quantum of resources available for the development of the NER. It will not be a substitute for existing central and state schemes.

Objectives of the scheme are to

(a) Fund infrastructure convergently, in the spirit of PM GatiShakti.

(b) Support social development projects based on felt needs of the NER.

(c) Enable livelihood activities for youth and women.

(d) Fill the development gaps in various sectors.

While some of the projects to be approved for 2022-23 under PMDevINE are part of the Budget announcement, projects with substantial socio-economic impact or sustainable livelihood opportunities for the general public (e.g., basic infrastructure in all Primary Health Care Centers, comprehensive facilities in Government Primary and Secondary Schools, etc) may be considered in the future, the statement added.

The justification for announcement of PMDevINE is that the parameters of NE States in respect of Basic Minimum Services (BMS) are well below the national average and there are critical development gaps as per the NER District Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Index 2021-22 prepared by NITI Aayog, UNDP and MDoNER. The new Scheme, PM-DevINE was announced to address these BMS shortfalls and development gaps.

  • PMDevINE will lead to creation of infrastructure, support industries, social development projects and create livelihood activities for youth and women, thus leading to employment generation.
  • PMDevINE will be implemented by Ministry of DoNER through North Eastern Council or Central Ministries/agencies.
  • Measures would be taken to ensure adequate operation and maintenance of the projects sanctioned under PMDevINE so that they are sustainable.
  • To limit construction risks of time and cost overrun, falling on the Government, projects would be implemented on Engineering-Procurement-Construction (EPC) basis, to the extent possible.
  • There are other MDoNER Schemes for the development of North Eastern Region. The average size of projects under other MDoNER Schemes is about Rs 12 crore only.
  • PMDevINE will provide support to infrastructure and social development projects which may be larger in size and will also provide an end–to-end development solution instead of isolated projects.

SALT Project of Andhra

The World Bank has extended an unconditional loan of $250 million to the Supporting Andhra’s Learning Transformation (SALT) project in appreciation of the path-breaking reforms implemented by the state government.

The reforms initiated under the SALT project have brought about a paradigm shift in the way education was imparted.

Key Points related to SALT Project in Andhra Pradesh
  • The SALT Project is the first project in the school education sector to be funded by the World Bank without any precondition.
  • To transform the state’s school education system by strengthening the quality of foundational learning through various pathways including improving teacher professional development, classroom-based assessments and early childhood education.
  • Establishing and strengthening foundation schools is in tune with the National Education Policy, 2020.

Jayaprakash Narayan: The man, the movement and his protégés

Union Home Minister Amit Shah unveiled a 15-foot statue of Jayaprakash Narayan or JP on his 120th birth anniversary on October 11 at the socialist icon’s birthplace, Sitab Diara village in Bihar’s Saran district.

Nanaji Deshmukh

Nanaji Deshmukh was born on October 11, 1916. A social reformer and politician from India, he worked in the fields of education, health, and rural self-reliance. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna by the Government of India.

  • Born as Chandikadas Amritrao Deshmukh in a small town, he was associated with Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) from a very early age.
  • In 1940, after Keshav Baliram Hedgewar’s (founder of RSS) death, many youngsters inspired by him joined the RSS in Maharashtra. Deshmukh was among those who joined the RSS devoting their whole life in service to the nation.
  • Educationist: He is believed to have established Saraswati Shishu Mandir (SSM), which runs a chain of private schools in India and is said to be the educational wing of the RSS. He started the country’s first SSM at Gorakhpur in 1950 and was the founder of Deendayal Research Institute (DRI) situated at Chitrakoot. He was also responsible for starting India’s first rural university, Chitarkoot Gramodya Vishwavidyalaya.
  • Role in JP movement :  He played a key role in the Jaya Prakash (JP) movement against Emergency in 1974. As the general secretary of the Lok Sangharsh Samiti, Deshmukh threw his weight behind Narayan’s call for total revolution.
  • Stint with politics: As an RSS pracharak in Agra, he met Deen Dayal Upadhyaya for the first time. Deshmukh was asked by RSS chief MS Golwalkar to take charge of Bharatiya Jana Sangh in Uttar Pradesh (UP) as its general secretary. Deshmukh won from Balrampur Lok Sabha constituency of UP in the 1977 election held after revocation of the Emergency with a comfortable margin. Later, Narayan himself and Morarji Desai, who became the Prime Minister heading the Janata Party Government offered him the Cabinet portfolio of Industry, but Deshmukh spurned the overture.
  • Unhappiness with India’s inaction against Pakistan:  Deshmukh deplored India’s “perpetual inaction against continuous attacks by Pakistan”. He felt such inaction could not be explained away, especially at a time when US had launched an attack on Afghanistan in retaliation to the terrorist attacks in New York on September 11.
  • Rural development: After retiring from politics in 1980, Deshmukh through DRI set up alternative rural development models based on traditional knowledge in the remote areas of Gonda and Chitrakoot in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (MP) respectively.
  • Reformist: Desmukh actively participated in the Bhoodan Movement started by Vinoba Bhave. Nanaji played an important role in carrying out a social restructuring programme in over 500 villages of UP and MP.
  • Apart from his contributions towards anti-poverty and minimum needs programmes, he carried out reformation of agriculture and cottage industry, rural health and rural education.

Tana Bhagat Movement

Tana Bhagats is a tribal community in Indian state of Jharkhand. They are related to the historical Tana Bhagat Movement (1914).

Tana Bhagats were formed by Oaron saints Jatra Bhagat and Turia Bhagat. Jatra Bhagat of Gumla, Ranchi proclaimed that he was divinely ordained to establish a new sect, the Tana sect, which was markedly different from the Oraon community.

The Tanas sought to reorder the Oraon society by opposing the traditional leadership of the pahan (Oraon priest) and mahto (village representative in secular affairs), and by rejecting the practices of spirit worship and sacrifice. In its earlier phase it was called as Kurukh Dharma. Kurukh is original religion of the Oraons.

The Tana Bhagats opposed the taxes imposed on them by the British and they staged nice poga Satyagraha (civil disobedience movement) even before Gandhi’s satyagraha movement. They opposed the zamindars, the banias (moneylenders), the missionaries, the Muslims and the British state. Tana Bhagats are followers of Mahatma Gandhi, and believe in Ahimsa (Non-violence)


  • The Reserve bank of India (RBI) has imagined a new digital currency, the e-rupee, in two forms: wholesale for interbank settlements and retail for the public.
  • RBI’s Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) will be issued and controlled by the central bank itself, unlike cryptocurrencies, which are private in nature.
  • The CBDC is a legal tender issued by a central bank. It would be your regular, sovereign-backed currency note, only in a digital format.
  • Termed e-rupee, you will not need a bank account to spend or receive this money. Issued as tokens, the RBI’s e-rupee will be on a par with regular cash.
  • You can use it to make payments and also exchange it for physical notes from the bank. RBI has been exploring the idea of CBDCs since 2017. Already, 105 countries are actively engaged in developing or exploring the viability of this form of money for their economy.
  • Yes. Unlike your regular savings account deposits, e-rupee deposits will not pay any interest.
  • E-rupee will also be the direct liability of the RBI. India still heavily relies on cash for small-value transactions. But the inclination towards opting for the digital medium is rising too. An RBI survey notes that 53.6% of people pay anything above Rs.5,000 digitally.

Modhera in Gujarat declared as the first solar-powered village of India

India’s first solar-powered village is setting an example of “reconciliation between humankind and planet” according to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres.

The village now has around 12 hectares of land covered with solar and rooftop panels on roughly 1,300 homes generating 1kW of energy. This is more than the people who live there use on a daily basis, meaning energy can also be fed back into the electricity grid.

Modhera is also known for its Sun temple:

  • It is situated on the bank of the river Pushpavati.
  • It was built after 1026-27 CE during the reign of Bhima I of the Chaulukya dynasty.
  • No worship is offered now and is protected monument maintained by Archaeological Survey of India.
  • The temple complex has three components: Gūḍhamanḍapa, the shrine hall; Sabhamanḍapa, the assembly hall and Kunḍa, the reservoir.
  • The halls have intricately carved exterior and pillars. The reservoir has steps to reach the bottom and numerous small shrines.

Indian Astronomical Observatory in Hanle, Ladakh

  • The Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO), located in Hanle near Leh in Ladakh, India, has one of the world’s highest located sites for optical, infrared and gamma-ray telescopes.
  • It is operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore.
  • It is currently the tenth (see List of highest astronomical observatories) highest optical telescope in the world, situated at an elevation of 4,500 meters (14,764 ft).
  • It is India’s first dark-sky preserve. (A dark-sky preserve (DSP) is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that restricts artificial light pollution.)



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