Rule Curve is a tabulation which specifies quantum of storage of water or empty space to be maintained in a reservoir during different times of a year, based on the rainfall data for 35 years.
It is a ready-reckoner in decision-making for officials in charge of the dam, for smooth operation of shutters, especially for moderation of flood, during monsoon times without having to seek permission from the top hierarchical ladder.
First dam to have Rule Curve
A Bone on Contention:-
Water of the Mullaperiyar dam, has remained a bone of contention between Tamil Nadu and Kerala for over four decades. After a long legal battle, the Tamil Nadu Government was allowed by Supreme Court to raise the water level from 136 feet to 142 feet in 2014.
The dam is in Kerala but maintained by Tamil Nadu.
About Mullaperiyar dam:-
The dam is on the Periyar River in the Indian state of Kerala.
It is located on the Cardamom hills of Western Ghat in Kerala.
Periyar National Park is located around the dam’s reservoir. It is a tiger as well as elephant reserve in Kerala.
The dam is built at the confluence of Mullayar and Periyar rivers
In a UN report published in 2021, the dam was identified as one among the world’s big dams which needs to be decommissioned for being ‘situated in a seismically active area with significant structural flaws and poses risk to 3.5 million people if the 100+ years old dam were to fail
News 2: Mudumalai National Park
Mudumalai National Park is a national park in the Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu.
The national park has been part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve since 1986 and was declared a tiger reserve
It is bordered in the west by Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala), in the north by Bandipur National Park(Karnataka) , in the east by Sigur Reserve Forest (Tamil Nadu)and bySingara Reserve Forest (Tamil Nadu)in south.
The Moyar River enters the national park in the south and is joined by five tributaries. Together they drain this area, and several artificial waterholes provide drinking water for wildlife during dry seasons. [Moyar river which is a tributary of Bhavani which in turn is a tributary of Kaveri]
Moyar river line of separation between the state of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and a separation between the forest of Bandipur National Park and the Mudumalai sanctuary to the south.
News 3: IMF to extend $2.9 billion to Srilanka
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) recently approved a loan of $2.9 billion to Sri Lanka,. The island country, which is battling its worst economic crisis since independence in 1948, witnessed widespread protests earlier this year that forced Gotabaya Rajapaksa to resign as President, and brought Ranil Wickremesinghe to power.
Sri Lanka owes more than $51 billion in foreign debt, of which $28 billion has to be repaid by 2028.
According to the IMF, the country’s economy will shrink by 8.7 per cent in 2022 while inflation rises to above 60 per cent
Economists say the crisis stems from domestic factors such as years of mismanagement and corruption.
IMF helps countries who face Balance of Payment (BoP) Crisis. Srilanka has been facing a BoP crisis and does not have enough forex to pay debts or buy essential things such as petrol, fertilizer etc. from world market.
It has been facing severe Inflation, mostly driven by shortage of supply of essential goods and products. (Demand pull inflation)
The IMF was conceived at a UN conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, in July 1944. Along with World Bank it is known as the Bretten Wood Twins.
The IMF is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
Important Reports Published by IMF :-
Global Financial Stability Report
World Economic Outlook
New 4: CERVAVAC
India’s first indigenously developed vaccine, “CERVAVAC” for the prevention of cervical cancer.
Developed by Serum Institute of India ( Mr. Adar C. Poonawalla, CEO)
Cervical cancer ranks as the 2nd most prevalent cancers in India and accounts for nearly one-fourth of the world’s cervical cancerdeathsdespite being largely preventable.
Current estimates indicate that every year approximately 1.25 lakhs women are diagnosed with cervical cancer, and over 75 thousand die from the disease in India
The most promising intervention for preventing cervical cancer is vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV). It is estimated that HPV types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18) together contribute to approximately 70% of all invasive cervical cancer cases worldwide.
‘CERVAVAC’ is an outcome of a partnership of DBT (Dept of Biotechnology) and BIRAC (Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council ) with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, supported by Serum Institute of India for the indigenous development of quadrivalent vaccine.
CERVAVAC is a quadrivalent vaccine, meaning it is effective against at least four variants of cancer-causing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
New 5: UN accuses China of Uighur rights abuses
The United Nations has accused China of committing serious human rights violations, following an investigation into allegations of abuse against Uyghur Muslims and other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang province.
Who are Uighurs?
The Uighurs are a nomadic Turkic people native to China’s Xinjiang province.
About 12 million Uighurs live in Xinjiang, with smaller groups in Kazakhstan, Turkey and other countries.
They are considered as one of China’s 55 officially recognized ethnic minorities.
Where is Xinjiang province?
The region produces about a fifth of the world’s cotton.
It is rich in oil and natural gas and because of its proximity to Central Asia and Europe, it is seen by China as an important trade link.
In the early 20th Century, the Uighurs briefly declared independence for the region but it was brought under the complete control of China’s new Communist government in 1949.
Human rights groups have accused China of sweeping a million or more people from the minority groups into detention camps.
UN accused China of serious human rights violations that may amount to “crimes against humanity”.
News 6: UN inspectors arrive at Ukraine nuclear plant amid shelling
A UN inspection team arrived at Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant on a mission to safeguard it from catastrophe, reaching the site amid heavy shelling that prompted the shutdown of one reactor and underscored the urgency and danger of the task.
Both Russia and Ukraine have accused each other of attacking the plant and of “nuclear terrorism”, with the IAEA urging “utmost restraint” around the site.
Where is Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant and why is it important?
Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant is the largest nuclear plant in Europe.
It is located in the southern Ukrainian steppe on the Dnieper River
Rafael Mariano Grossi, director-general of the IAEA, described the situation as “completely out of control”
IAEA-International Atomic Energy Agency
The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty (the IAEA Statute), the IAEA reports to both the General Assembly and the Security Council of the UN.
IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation on the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide
Head Quarter- Vienna, Austria
India is a member. Almost all except few countries like North-Korea are not its members.
News 7: Jobless rate zooms to 1year high of 8.3%
India’s unemployment rate surged to a one year high of 8.3% in August as employment sequentially fell by 2 million to 394.6 million, according to data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.