10 things to know about ISRO’s scramjet engine launch
India successfully tests its own scramjet engine in flight on board an Advanced Technology Vehicle rocket.
Two scramjet engines were tested during the flight from Sriharikota.
India is the fourth country to demonstrate the flight testing of scramjet engine.
Scramjet engines in flight is an important milestone in ISRO’s endeavour towards its future space transportation system.
The scramjet engine is used only during the atmospheric phase of the rocket’s flight.
Scramjet engines will help bringing down launch cost by reducing the amount of oxidiser to be carried along with the fuel.
Scramjet engines designed by ISRO uses hydrogen as fuel and the oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser.
The test-flight is maiden short duration experimental test of ISRO’s scramjet engine with a hypersonic flight at Mach 6 (six times the speed of sound).
Two scramjet engines were “hugging” the rocket on its sides and when the rocket reaches a height of 11 km the scramjet engines would start breathing air.
The ATV rocket weighed 3,277 kg during lift-off.
India ranked 77 in disaster risk index of the world
The index is part of the World Risk Report 2016 released by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) and Bundnis Entwicklung Hilft in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart in Germany.
Lack of critical infrastructure and weak logistic chains substantially increase the risk that an extreme natural event will become a disaster
While Bangladesh is among the top five countries at risk of disaster, India ranks 77 on the World Risk Index – marginally better positioned than Pakistan which is placed at 72.
The index assessed the risk of disaster in 171 countries through the combined analysis of natural hazards and societal vulnerabilities.
Ranking No.1, the island state of Vanuatu displayed the greatest risk in 2016.
The researchers concluded in the report that lack of critical infrastructure and weak logistic chains substantially increase the risk that an extreme natural event will become a disaster.
“When it comes to aid measures following extreme natural events, the challenges mostly lie in the ‘last mile’ of the logistics chain: organising transportation despite destroyed streets or bridges and ensuring fair distribution when there is a shortage of (for example) water, food, and shelter.
Crumbling transport routes, unreliable electricity grids, and dilapidated buildings not only hinder humanitarian aid from overseas, but also delay crucial aid for those affected in the event of a disaster.
Sufficient, high-quality infrastructure, which is well-managed institutionally, can not only prevent the often catastrophic consequences of natural hazards such as flooding or storms, but it can also play a crucial role in the distribution of humanitarian aid supplies in the event of a disaster. Critical infrastructure can thus reduce the risk of natural hazards for populations and absorb economic losses.
One interesting question was asked by one of our students (Sreeram VS) is that –
How Nepal got 108 rank in world risk index by UNUIE and UNU EHS , while india got 77 rank only?
Answer – All natural events are not disasters, for example if there is an earthquake or volcanic eruption in a non-inhabited region, it may not be categorized as disaster, instead it will simply be a natural hazard.What makes a natural events a disaster is the human component – that is threats to human life , properties ,livestock etc.Without the human component it will not be a disaster.
Now if we compare Nepal and India, almost all parts of India are prone to one disaster or other, and given the high number of population and especially the number of population inhabiting risk prone zones are very high ,thus owing to its vast geography and large population along with inadequate critical infrastructure makes India more prone than Nepal.
Nepal may endure more natural hazards but if there are none/very less people inhabit these regions or if they have critical infrastructure it may fair well as compared to India.
Although we have not checked the indices used to calculate the disaster index , but the logic seems pretty straight forward.
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India plans anti-terror drive at NAM
Ahead of the 71st session of the United Nations General Assembly, India is planning a major diplomatic outreach in order to push through the ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT).In this regard, India is expected to launch a campaign during the September 13-18 Non Aligned Movement summit in Venezuela.
Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT):
It is a draft paper proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.it calls for :-
Universal definition of terrorism: no good terrorist or bad terrorist.
Ban on all groups regardless of country of operation, cut off access to funds and safe havens.Prosecution of all groups including cross border groups.
Amending domestic laws to make cross-border terrorism an extraditable offense.
It also addresses the issue of Pakistan’s support for cross-border terrorism in south Asia.