Note- Important parts are highlighted or Italicized. We have tried to keep it extremely “To the Point” for Prelims, although there are certain aberration like the NGT issue or CBI where it is little elaborate but it is elaborate because it is important.
NGT- “Green Court”
The National Green Tribunal has been established on 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same
Initially, the NGT is proposed to be set up at five places of sittings and will follow circuit procedure for makin itself more accessible. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other four place of sitting of the Tribunal.
It organises International Conference on ‘Global Environmental Issues’
The Chairperson of the NGT is a retired Judge of the Supreme Court, Head Quartered in Delhi. Other Judicial members are retired Judges of High Courts. Each bench of the NGT will comprise of at least one Judicial Member and one Expert Member. Expert members should have a professional qualification and a minimum of 15 years experience in the field of environment/forest conservation and related subjects.
The NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues and questions that are linked to the implementation of laws listed in Schedule I of the NGT Act. These include the following:
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977;
- The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
- The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981;
- The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;
- The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991;
- The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
The NGT is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. Further, NGT is also not bound by the rules of evidence as enshrined in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. Thus, it will be relatively easier (as opposed to approaching a court) for conservation groups to present facts and issues before the NGT, including pointing out technical flaws in a project, or proposing alternatives that could minimize environmental damage but which have not been considered.
While passing Orders/decisions/awards, the NGT will apply the principles of sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principles.
Review and Appeal
Under Rule 22 of the NGT Rules, there is a provision for seeking a Review of a decision or Order of the NGT. If this fails, an NGT Order can be challenged before the Supreme Court within ninety days.
FAQS on NGT-
1. What is the difference between a Court and a Tribunal?
The Supreme Court has answered this question by holding that “Every Court may be a tribunal but every tribunal necessarily may not be a court”. A High court for instance, where a PIL would be filed, may have wide ranging powers covering all enacted laws (including the power of contempt) but the NGT has only been vested with powers under the seven laws related to the Environment.
2. We are trying to protect a National Park/Sanctuary from various pressures including a dam proposal and widening of a highway. Should we approach the NGT?
No. As explained above, the NGT is not empowered to hear matters pertaining to issues coming under the ambit of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which is applicable in case of National Parks, Sanctuaries and Tiger Reserves. It would be appropriate to approach either the High Court in your State or the Supreme Court. Please consult a competent lawyer for advice.
3. Can I personally argue a matter before the NGT or do I need a lawyer?
Yes. You can argue the matter yourself provided you are well acquainted with the facts and are reasonably knowledgeable about the law and procedures. The language of the NGT is English, and some guidelines related to dress apply. However, it would be best if a lawyer represents you since (s)he will be better equipped to argue and handle all procedural aspects.
4. What is the penalty for non-compliance of an NGT Order?
If a project proponent or any authority does not comply with the directions contained in an NGT order, the penalty can be imprisonment for three years or fine extending to 10 crores or both. Continued failure will attract a fine of twenty five thousand rupees per day.
5. Is there a bar on civil courts to hear /take up cases under the seven specified laws in Schedule I of the NGT Act?
Yes. With the enactment of the NGT Act, Civil courts cannot hear matters related to Environmental issues under the seven laws which the NGT is empowered to deal with.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of India, which simultaneously serves as the nation’s prime federal law enforcement agency. It operates under the jurisdiction of the Government of India. The CBI is overseen by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions of the Federal government, headed by a Cabinet Minister who reports directly to the Prime Minister.
The amended Delhi Special Police Establishment Act empowers a committee to appoint the director of CBI. The committee consists the following people:
- Prime Minister – chairperson
- Leader of Opposition – member
- Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court Judge recommended by the Chief Justice – member
Above Selection committee was constituted under The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013. Before this central vigilance commissioner, under CVC act, had this power.
The legal powers of investigation of the CBI are derived from the DSPE Act 1946, which confers powers, duties, privileges and liabilities on the Delhi Special Police Establishment (CBI) and officers of the Union Territories. The central government may extend to any area (except Union Territories) the powers and jurisdiction of the CBI for investigation, subject to the consent of the government of the concerned state. Under the act, the CBI can investigate only with notification by the central government.
The High Courts and the Supreme Court have the jurisdiction to order a CBI investigation into an offence alleged to have been committed in a state without the state’s consent.
CBI is exempted from the provisions of the Right to Information Act.
Central Vigilance Commission
It has the status of an autonomous body, free of control from any executive authority, charged with monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government of India, advising various authorities in central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
It was set up by the Government of India in February, 1964 on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, headed by Shri K. Santhanam, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance.
The Commission shall consist of:
- A Central Vigilance Commissioner – Chairperson;
- Not more than two Vigilance Commissioners – Members
The Central Vigilance Commissioner and the Vigilance Commissioners shall be appointed by the President on recommendation of a Committee consisting of the Prime Minister (Chairperson), the Minister of Home Affairs (Member) and the Leader of the Opposition in the House of the People (Member).
Corruption investigations against government officials can proceed only after the government permits them. The CVC publishes a list of cases where permissions are pending.
The Central Vigilance Commissioner or any Vigilance Commissioner can be removed from his office only by order of the President on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity.
CVC is a public authority as defined in the Right to Information Act and hence it is obliged to provide information requested by any citizen of India.
CVC is only an advisory body. Central Government Departments are free to either accept or reject CVC’s advice in corruption cases. CVC does not have powers to register criminal case. It deals only with vigilance or disciplinary cases
Siddeswaram irrigation weir (alugu) on Krishna river in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh
Weir– A low dam built to raise the level of water upstream or regulate the flow.
Sections 124A (sedition) and 500 (defamation).
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) treaty-
NPT has had no impact on nuclear arms reductions. Its limitations are apparent in that it recognises only five nuclear weapon states (the U.S., Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China) but is unable to deal with the reality of India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea’s weapon programmes. (Prelims question 2016)
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament
The treaty defines nuclear-weapon states as those that have built and tested a nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967; these are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China. Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel is deliberately ambiguous regarding its nuclear weapons status.
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
The NSG was founded in response to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974.
Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. Under the terms of Article III.2 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards must be applied to nuclear exports.
Trigger List-The Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group maintain lists of items that may contribute to nuclear proliferation; The nuclear non-proliferation treaty forbids its members to export such items to non-treaty members. these items are said to trigger the countries’ responsibilities under the NPT, hence the name.
London Club-The name of the “London Club” was due to the series of meetings in London. It has also been referred to as the London Group, or the London Suppliers Group.
International Atomic Energy Agency,Vienna
The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute,the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
India is a member of IAEA.
Kerabha Jungle– Lion- Part of Gir NP, Gujrat
Lion-tailed macaques – Endangered-Found in Western Ghat (More specifically Agumbe ghat, Karnataka)
Kanjarbhat community– A nomadic tribe from Maharashtra
Rahim Pragati Producer Company Ltd (RPCL) , Dewas, Madhya Pradesh
A farmers’ produce organisation (FPO) that helps them secure the best possible price for their produce besides good-quality, pesticide-free seeds. The tribal women of MP have formed a farmers’ produce organisation in Dewas that bypasses exploitative middlemen to access markets directly.
Most of its members are small and marginal farmers with average land holding of less than a hectare.What sets RPCL apart from other FPOs in the country is that its board of directors and shareholders comprise tribal women farmers.
RPCL has even helped farmers sell their produce directly on the National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Ltd to get better prices than the mandis.
Samaj Pragati Sahayog (SPS), a not-for-profit organisation that played a key role in establishing RPCL.
Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI),
Nikkei Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI), compiled by Markit.
The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of the economic health of the manufacturing sector. The PMI is based on five major indicators: new orders, inventory levels, production, supplier deliveries and the employment environment.
Tiger Temple in Thailand
The temple, a Buddhist monastery that ofered paying tourists close contact with tigers, has long been accused by conservationists and animal rights activists of exploiting and abusing the animals, accusations the temple has denied.
An international team of astrophysicists has stumbled upon an unusual astronomical object — an Einstein ring which is a distorted image of a very distant galaxy termed as “the source”.
The distortion is produced by the bending of the light rays from the source due to a massive galaxy, termed “the lens”, lying between it and the observer
Indra Dhanush programme – Patronage to classical artist by president
One of the multifarious roles that the President of India assumes as the first citizen is that of patron-in-chief of the arts. He presides over award ceremonies to artists and all awards are given in his name. The State, has had to assume patronage of the classical arts after the breakdown of the princely states after 1947, and heading this initiative is the President.
The distinctive Indra Dhanush logo was created so that an identity was established. In the words of the President, “Our national bird –– the peacock –– which now symbolises Indra Dhanush represents, in the true sense, the diversity, uniqueness and brilliance of India’s performing arts and music.”
Projects by Telengana Government
Mission Kakatiya or Mana Ooru Mana Cheruvu is a program of restoring all the tanks and lakes in Telangana.
Mission Bhagirathi- objective to provide safe drinking water to all.100 litre/person in rural areas, 150 litre/person in urban areas
Haaritha Haaram- to increase tree cover from 24% to 33%
The IISS Asia Security Summit: The Shangri-La Dialogue (SLD) is a “Track One” inter-governmental security forum held annually by an independent think tank, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) which is attended by defense ministers, permanent heads of ministries and military chiefs of 28 Asia-Pacific states. The forum gets its name from the Shangri-La Hotel in Singapore where it has been held since 2002.
Pakistan is not a member but China is.
What defines a monsoon?
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, HQ-Singapore
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region. It was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world; to defuse fears that highly industrialised Japan (a member of G8) would come to dominate economic activity in the Asia-Pacific region; and to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe
After Chabahar, India eyes port in Bangladesh
After bagging the strategically important Chabahar Port in Iran, the government is looking eastwards and is in discussions with Bangladesh to develop a similar facility in Paira.
India Ports Global, the joint venture between the state-run JNPT and Kandla Port for overseas ports.
Farzad-B gas project
Iranian gas field that India is working on.
The Farzad-B field, discovered in 2012, is estimated to have 21.68 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of gas reserves. The deal with Iran would see development of the field by a consortium of Indian companies
led by ONGC Videsh, the overseas arm of state-run Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.
Model Code of Conduct (Only the important ones)
The Constitution under Article 324 mandates the Election Commission, to conduct elections inter alia to the Parliament and the State Legislatures
No criticism of all aspects of private life, no appeal on the basis of religion,caste etc
No canvassing within 100 meters of polling stations and no transport and conveyance of voters to and from polling station.
Organizing demonstrations or picketing before the houses of individuals by way of protesting against their opinions or activities shall not be resorted to under any circumstances.
The Directive Principles of State Policy enshrined in the Constitution enjoin upon the State to frame various welfare measures for the citizens and therefore there can be no objection to the promise of such welfare measures in election manifestos. Manifestos should reflect the rationale for the promises and broadly indicate the ways and means to meet the financial requirements for it
S. Subramaniam Balaji Vs Govt. of Tamil Nadu and Others
The Supreme Court in its judgment dated 5th July 2013 in SLP(C) No. 21455 of 2008 ( S. Subramaniam Balaji Vs Govt. of Tamil Nadu and Others) has directed the Election Commission to frame guidelines with regard to the contents of election manifestos in consultation with all the recognized political parties.
The guiding principles are-
“Although, the law is obvious that the promises in the election manifesto cannot be construed as ‘corrupt practice’ under Section 123 of RP Act, the reality cannot be ruled out that distribution of freebies of any kind, undoubtedly, influences all people. It shakes the root of free and fair elections to a large degree”.
For the party in power it bars the ministers from following-
shall not sanction grants/payments out of discretionary funds from the time elections are announced by the Commission
Shall not announce any financial grants in any form or promises thereof
Shall not make any promise of construction of roads, provision of drinking water facilities etc
Shall not make any ad-hoc appointments in Government, Public Undertakings etc.
Under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, a minor who is above 16 years of age and is accused of committing a ‘heinous crime’, defined as an offence that attracts a jail term of seven years or more, may be tried as an adult, if the juvenile justice board allows it after making a preliminary assessment.
To rein in the rising smuggling of red sanders wood, the directorate of revenue intelligence (DRI) has reached out to 17 countries to bust organised syndicates of the smugglers of the precious wood and trace their origin.
The programme — Operation Sesha (derived from Seshachalam forest) — has roped in Malaysia, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, China, Nepal, Myanmar, Vietnam, Maldives, Pakistan and the Philippines, among others, to track down smugglers of the precious wood, which is an endangered plant species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora, an international agreement between governments.
Jerdons Curoser- Critically Endangered – mostly found in Seshachallam Hills
Tigernet– a directory of tigers and other wildlife mortality.
Eugenics- the science of improving a population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
Kanwar Lake, Bihar – Asia’s largest fresh water lake.
Wetland Atlas of India says the country has 1,88,470 inland wetlands,
Maltitol, a sweetening agent, is used to fill in the bone gap caused by fracture, instead of the traditional rod – IISC
LISA Pathfinder-LISA Pathfinder, formerly Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology-2 (SMART-2), is an Europeaan Space Agencey spacecraft.
The mission will test technologies needed for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), an ESA gravitational wave observatory planned to be launched in 2034. The scientific phase started on 8 March 2016 and will last 6 months.
LISA Pathfinder is a proof-of-concept mission to prove that the two masses can fly through space, untouched but shielded by the spacecraft, and maintain their relative positions to the precision needed to realise a full gravitational wave observatory planned for launch in 2034.
Pelindaba Treaty- (named after South Africa’s main Nuclear Research Centre, run by The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation and was the location where South Africa’s atomic bombs of the 1970s were developed, constructed and subsequently stored), establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa. The treaty was signed in 1996 and came into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009.
The Treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession, control or stationing of nuclear explosive devices in the territory of parties to the Treaty and the dumping of radioactive wastes in the African zone by Treaty parties. The Treaty also prohibits any attack against nuclear installations in the zone by Treaty parties.
India has asked African countries to relax commitment to the Pelindaba Treaty which controls supply of uranium from key mineral hubs of Africa to the rest of the world.
India and Namibia signed two MoUs on Cooperation in the field of geology and mineral resources and Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy, However the Pelindaba Treaty has prevented it from ratifying the agreements. Namibia is the fourth largest producer of uranium.
Ken-Betwa project – Environmentalists say the river interlinking project will submerge at least 4,000 hectares of Panna tiger reserve, and vulture nests in the region will be threatened.
About the project– transfer surplus water from the Uttar Pradesh section of the Ken to the Betwa in Madhya Pradesh are critical to irrigate nearly 7,00,000 hectares in drought-ravaged Bundelkhand
Hysterectomy– a surgical operation to remove all or part of the uterus.
Background-Several Lambada tribal women in the villages of Kowdipally mandal of Medak district had undergone hysterectomies — as early as in their twenties. Sensing something amiss, the Centre for Action, Research and People’s Development (CARPED) undertook a door-to-door survey and recorded 728 such cases.
Lambada tribe- Telengana / Andhra Pradesh
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the gatekeeper to the periodic table, has announced the proposed names for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118: nihonium, moscovium, tennessine and oganesson.
Global Peace Index – Institute for Economics and Peace
The index gauges global peace using three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society, the extent of domestic and international conflict and the degree of militarization.
The so-called Human Genome Project–Write, or HGP-Write, is a project where the scientist hope to actually write or synthesise all six billion DNA letters of a human genome.
Kheer Bhawani Temple in Ganderbal, J& K
Bharathapuzha river is in Kerala
Maa Maariamma Temple- Jalndhar,Punjab, -walk on burning fire ritual
TERI– The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) is a leading think tank dedicated to conducting research for sustainable development of India and the Global South.
TERI was established in 1974 as an information centre on energy issues. However, over the following decades, it made a mark as a research institute, whose policy and technology solutions transformed people’s lives and the environment.
TERI’s key focus lies in promoting:
- Clean energy
- Water management
- Pollution management
- Sustainable agriculture
- Climate resilience
Dipor Beel- wetland under the Ramsar Convention, Assam
BirdLife International has declared Deepor Beel as an Important Bird Area (IBA) with high priority for conservation.
Isaac Kehimkar, popularly known as ‘the Butterfly Man of India.’Mr. Kehimkar has already published two comprehensive field guides — Common Indian Wildflowers and the Book of Indian Butterflies for the BNHS.
Andhra Pradesh – first State to get permission to start its own Internet Protocol-based television network
INSV Mhadei – steered by an all-woman, six-member crew that will attempt to circumnavigate the world
Pallium, the part of the brain that corresponds to cerebral cortex, which supports higher cognition functions such as planning for the future or finding patterns.
Bramble Cay melomys , an Australian rodent may be first species to go extinct due to climate change. It is a mammal
Drinking hot beverages above 65C is carcinogenic – International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization. IARC coordinates and conducts both epidemiological and laboratory research into the causes of human cancer.
Giant African Snails -are marching on to more districts of Kerala, the Forest Research Institute of the State has warned. They could decimate standing crop and threaten the health of children, besides devouring calcium from house walls,Considered one of 100 most invasive species in the world, Giant African Snails (Achatina fulica) feed on several plants.They destroy almost all crops and can live in a dormant state for 2-3 years. The snails are an intermediate host of the rat lung worm that causes oesinophilic meningitis in children below five years.
The snail requires large amounts of calcium to maintain its big shell. As the soil in Kerala is poor in calcium content, the species utilise the calcium in compound walls and buildings, thus damaging them.
Wildlife laws divide species into ‘schedules’ ranked from I to V. Schedule I members are the best protected, in theory, with severe punishments meted out to those who hunt them. Wild boars, nilgai and rhesus monkeys are Schedule II and III members — also protected, but can be hunted under specific conditions. Crows and fruit bat fall in Schedule 5, the vermin category.
NRIs can now apply online for National Pension Scheme
Taxidermy-Taxidermy is the preserving of an animal’s body via stuffing or mounting for the purpose of display or study.
Santosh Gaikwad at the taxidermy centre in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park,Mumbai. He is the country’s only taxidermist authorised by the government.
Mohana Singh, Avani Chaturvedi and Bhawana Kanth, India’s first woman fighter pilots
Mangar Bani- It is Aravalli’s ancient forest grove around Delhi. It also serve as wildlife corridor between the Asola wildlife sanctuary in Delhi and the Sariska national park in Rajasthan.
Kapu refers to a social grouping of agriculturists found primarily in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (the Telugu-speaking states). Kapus are primarily an agrarian community, forming a heterogeneous peasant caste. They are classified as a Forward Caste in Andhra Pradesh, where they are the dominant community in the districts of East Godavari and West Godavari
Neyyar sanctuary- The Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary in the southern state of Kerala in India is spread over the southeast corner of the Western Ghats,
Skyglow, or artificial skyglow as it is sometimes called, is a term used by scientists to refer to the brightening of the night sky in inhabited areas. It shows how much of the natural night sky is obscured because of light from the ground below. Daily, seasonal, and lunar cycles of light that had previously been important for years have been dramatically altered by the spread of both public and private night-time lighting. The introduction of artificial light has caused an unprecedented disruption to the night-time environment over large areas of the earth. A team of scientists last week prepared an atlas of sky glowand have reported that the Milky Way is no longer visible to one-third of humanity. This light pollution, say scientists, has a bearing on human circadian rhythms and also disrupts other ecological processes.
Langtang-A crater in Mars has been named after Langtang, one of the villages hit by an earthquake in Nepal in 2015.
Kongsfjorden is an established reference site for the Arctic marine studies. The Kongsfjorden has been considered as a natural laboratory for studying the Arctic climate variability, as it receives varying climatic signals from the Arcitc/Atlantic in the course of an annual seasonal cycle.
There exists a great need to know on how the fjord system is influenced by, or responds to exchanges with the water on the shelf and in the deep sea outside during an entire annual seasonal cycle. In particular, there is a need for continuous observations of the water transport into the interior part of the fjord. One of the major constraints in such a study has been the difficulty in reaching the location during the harsh Arctic winter and obtaining near-surface data. The IndARC observatory is an attempt to overcome this lacuna and collect continuous data from depths very close to the water surface as well as at different discrete depths
Italian composer and pianist Ludovico Einaudi performs one of his compositions on a floating platform in the Arctic Ocean, in front of the Wahlenbergbreen glacier, in Svalbard, Norway. The composition, Elegy for the Arctic, was inspired by eight million voices from around the world calling for Arctic protection.
*Not Important but who knows, last year UPSC asked a question on movies.Question can be framed like –
Elegy for Arctic, which was in news recently refers to :-
a) A civil society movement to protect Arctic
b) A campaign launched by Greenpeace against the exploitation of Arctic
c) An UN treaty that deals with arctic protection through consensus
d) A musical composition that highlights and draws attention for arctic protection.
And, if not aware most of us will opt for b or c.
In his accounts belonging to 7th century A.D., Hiuen Tsang talked about ten Buddhist monasteries flourishing in Onantopulo, or Anandpura, the ancient name of Vadnagar.The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has unearthed structures resembling a Buddhist monastery in Vadnagar city of Gujarat.
Buddhism in its various forms spread across the world due to the efforts of monks, scholars and missionaries. One such person was Kumarajiva. Born in CE 350, he broke political, geographical, cultural and linguistic barriers for a long-cherished mission — propagation of the true spirit of Buddhism. His father belonged to a politically-powerful Kashmiri family, while his mother was the Princess of Kucha, a kingdom on the Silk Route.
While LED lighting has several advantages, the excessive blue light it emits can be harmful. The human eye perceives the large amount of blue light emitted by some LEDs as white. Blue light directly affects sleep by suppressing the production of the hormone melatonin, which mediates the sleepwake cycle in humans.
The correlated colour temperature (CCT) of firstgeneration LEDs, which are currently used, is 4,000K. Higher CCT values indicate greater blue light emission, and in the case of 4,000K LED lighting, 29 per cent of the spectrum is emitted as blue light.