Dear Students,

Please note that mains test UTM04 is already live in student portal. The questions are as follows-


  1. Discuss the emergence of “Second generation rights” in India’s jurisprudence with a special reference to Olga Tellis case. Give some examples of “Second generation rights” and their importance in a democracy.
  2. Displacement and lack of rehabilitation is held responsible for the rise of left wing extremism and Naxalism in India. In light of this, critically analyse the pronouncements of Supreme Court of India with regards to Narmada Bachao Andolan – one of the most prominent case in this regard and suggest a way forward.
  3. Discuss the evolution and importance of “environmental legislations” in India. Critically analyse the environmental legislation architecture in India and suggest a way forward.
  4. “Good governance is a fundamental right of a citizen in a democracy”. Elucidate. The constitution of India provides for “good governance, do you agree? Give well reasoned arguments in favour of your contention.
  5. “Constitution of India is an organic and a living document”. Elaborate.
  6. Discuss the constitutional basis of “Uniform Civil Code”. Critically analyse the Supreme Court’s pronouncements with regards to Shah Bano case and how it created the need for “Uniform Civil Code”.
  7. “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be measured by the way in which its animals are treated”. In light of this statement discuss the various constitutional and legal basis for animal rights in India.
  8. “Universal Basic Income is a radical and compelling paradigm shift in thinking about both social justice and a productive economy”. Critically Analyse.
  9. What do you understand by “Right to Food”? Critically analyse the National Food Security Act, 2013 and suggest a way forward.
  10. Critically analyse India’s cyber law framework and its vulnerabilities. Also suggest a holistic plan to create a robust cyber legal architecture for India.
  11. Discuss the conception of “gender justice”. Also highlight the constitutional basis for gender justice in India.
  12. “Accountability and transparency, the two cardinal principles of good governance in a democratic setup, depend, for their observance, on how well the public audit function is discharged”. In light of this statement discuss the importance of Comptroller and Auditor general of India and the role they play in a democratic set up.
  13. Self Help Groups are said to have “Multiplier effects”, however in recent times they are contributing more towards non performing asset generation rather than empowering the generation. Discuss.
  14. What are the components of “Social Defence”? Discuss the few flagship schemes of Government of India in this regard and recent developments from legal perspective.
  15. Enumerate the problems of health sector of India and suggest a holistic plan to provide affordable, accessible and universal health coverage for all
  16. In spite of the efforts of the government, the Tribal areas across India continue to suffer from poor health services and they have ineffective coverage under national health and nutrition programmes. In light of this discuss the tribal health care issues and suggest a way forward.
  17. Critically analyse the issues related to abortion arising out of Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and discuss the various court judgements in this regard.
  18. What do you understand by “democratic accountability” and “bureaucratic accountability” and how are they enforced in India? What are the advantages of having an independent, permanent and impartial civil service?
  19. Discuss the importance of “island nations” of South-East Asia to India’s interest. Also highlight the role of ASEAN and how it can augment India’s geopolitical standing.
  20. Discuss the importance of United Nations’ Incheon strategy. Show how convergence of India’s “Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan (Accessible India)” initiative and United Nation’s Incheon strategy can help realize each other’s goal.

You can join the Mains test here-  Click Here

Thank You


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  • Darknet


    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.