National Policy for Skills Development and Entrepreneurship in 2015
Vision:- “create an ecosystem of empowerment by skilling on a large scale, at speed with high standards, and to promote a culture of innovation based entrepreneurship, which can generate wealth and employment, so as to ensure sustainable livelihoods for all citizens in the country”
In India, we have a large eco-system of 4,500 start-ups – the third largest in the world. Even then, it is not easy to start a new venture in India. Access to funding and mentorship remains a hurdle. In key parameters such as ease of doing business and R&D investment, there is scope for much improvement.
To achieve centre-stage in innovation, we need to work relentlessly in aspects such as creation of a favourable business atmosphere; improving the quality of education and skills training; and expanding the IT infrastructure including high speed internet connectivity.
Our policies like Start-up India and Atal Innovation Mission are geared to support the start-up environment. The public and private sectors both have to play a catalytic role in further developing such an eco-system.
The investor community – the angel investors and venture capitalists – has a crucial role to play in the transformation of innovative ideas into successful business models. Every start-up may not turn successful.
Studies have indicated that ninety percent of new ventures that don’t attract investors fail within three years.
Investors prefer a proven business model before investing and scaling it up. Innovation-based projects have uncertain outcomes. Their returns are often skewed as they have to confront the “valley of death”.
It is that early phase comprising the ‘seed’ and ‘start-up’ stages in which: (i) a novel idea or a concept is developed; (ii) its technical feasibility, market potential and economic viability are determined; (iii) a product prototype is designed; and (iv) a formal business organization is established. These early stage activities involve sunk costs resulting in negative cash flows for the new firm.
Investors are often shy to fund innovation start-ups as they are not sure of their success. But one must understand that even though nine out of ten ventures that an investor may fund, may fail; still, the one venture that will succeed, will make good the loss incurred on the rest.
Such are the rules of the game. Our investors must have an eye for sifting the good ideas from the ordinary ones. They must have the risk taking ability and appetite to nurture innovative ideas into successful products and services.
Remember these words of the famous management guru Late Peter Drucker:
“In every success story, you will find someone who has made a courageous decision” . Death Valley Curve
It refer to the period of time from when a startup firm receives an initial capital contribution to when it begins generating revenues. During the death valley curve, additional financing is usually scarce, leaving the firm vulnerable to cash flow requirements.
The name “death valley” refers to the high probability that a startup firm will die off before a steady stream of revenues is established. After a firm receives its first round of financing, it incurs a lot of initial costs. Offices are usually built, staff is hired and operating costs are incurred; meanwhile, the firm is not earning significant income. Unless a firm can effectively manage itself through the death valley curve, it will fall victim to negative cash flows.
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.