Instructions: Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks.

Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5×20 = 200 Marks )


1.Discuss possible factors that inhibit India from  enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the directive principles of state policy(12.5M)

2. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years , Highlight drawbacks in existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.(12.5M)

3. In absence of well-educated and organized local level government system ,’Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political  institutions and not effective instruments of governance .Critically Discuss.(12.5M)

4. Khap Panchyats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities,often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations .Discuss critically the actions taken by legislative,executive,and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.(12.5M)

5. Resorting to ordinance has always raised concerns on violation of spirit of separation of powers doctrine.While, noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances,analyze whether the decisions of supreme court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power.Should the power to promulgate ordinances be repealed ? (12.5M)

6.What are the major changes in the Arbitration and Conciliation act ,1996 through the recent ordinance promulgated by president ? How far will it improve the India’s dispute resolution mechanism?

7. Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali?Discuss , in the light of Article 21 of the Indian constitution and judgements of the Apex court in this regard.

8.  Examine critically the recent change in rules governing foreign funding of NGOS under Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act ,1976.

9. The Self help group bank linkage programme , which is India’s own innovation , has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme.Elucidate

10. How can the roles of NGOS be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of environment ?Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.

11. The quality of higher education in India requires major improvements to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve quality of higher and technical education in the country .Discuss ?

12. Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest ?

13. Though there have been several different estimates of Poverty in India , all indicate reduction of poverty level over time .Do you agree ?Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators.

14. In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in change to corporate governance to ensure transparency and accountability.

15. If amendment bill to Whistler Blowers Act ,2011 tabled in parliament is passed , there may be no one left to protect.

16. For achieving desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous .Discuss in  light of the experience in past.
17. Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pros and cons.Critically examine.
18. Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UN security council.

19. Project “Mausam” is considered unique foreign policy of Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbors.Does the project have a strategic dimension.Discuss.

20. Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India-Pakistan relations.To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchanges could help generate good will between the two countries.Discuss with example.


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  • Darknet


    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.