Islands differ in their geological and geomorphologic settings; and in their physical, biological, climatic, social, political, cultural, and ethnic characteristics. Yet they share a distinct underlying concern that marks their overall vulnerability in the context of sustainable development.

Islands of the World

Continental Islands

Bodies of land connected by the continental shelf to a continent. Greenland is part of North American continental shelf, while Tasmania is an extension of the Australian continent. Also, Trinidad is a section of the South American continental shelf while Sumatra is a portion of the South East Asian shelf.

Oceanic Islands

Bodies formed by volcanic eruptions on the ocean floor. As volcanoes erupt, they build up layers of lava that may eventually break the water surface. When the tops of the volcanoes appear above the water, they form islands such as Hawaii made primarily of basaltic lava. Oceanic islands are also known as ‘high islands’ and are usually formed near subduction zones, hot spots, tectonic plates etc.

Tidal Islands

Bodies that are connected to the mainland at low tide at which time they can be reached on foot. At high tide however they are completely cut off from the mainland making it a true island. Tidal islands are sometimes connected to the mainland by a man-made causeway. Some such islands are Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy, France, Enoshima in Japan, Lindisfarne in the northeast coast of England, etc.

Coral Islands

Bodies of low flat land formed in warm waters by tiny sea animals called corals. As corals build up, their hard skeletons make reefs of limestone. Some coral reefs may grow up from a plateau on the seafloor until they break the water’s surface, forming islands. The islands of the Bahamas are the highest parts of underwater banks. Another kind of coral island is the atoll, which is a coral reef that begins by growing in a ring around the sides of an oceanic island. As the island slowly sinks into the sea, the reef continues to grow. Lakshadweep Islands comprise of 12 such atolls.

Artificial Islands

Bodies of land that is essentially man-made, with material brought-in from elsewhere or as an expanded part of an already-existing island by draining the water around it. Some of the example of artificial islands are Harbor Island in San Diego Bay, California; Treasure Island in Eastern Caribbean, etc. Singapore is actively involved in creating artificial islands apart from other nations such as Qatar and Japan.

Barrier Islands

Bodies of narrow land that lie parallel to coastlines largely made up of sediments, separated from the shore by a lagoon or a sound. They usually have sand dunes that act as barriers between the ocean and the mainland, which protects the coast from being directly battered by storm waves and winds. The islands off the Atlantic coast of southern Florida were formed in this way. Some barrier islands were formed by glacial deposits from the ice age. Long Island, in New York, and Nantucket, off the coast of Massachusetts, are both formed of glacial moraines. Some of the barrier islands are Galveston and Padre Island, Texas; East Frisian Islands, West Germany.

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  • Darknet


    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.