Basic components of Geographical Information System (GIS) you must know. Components – Hardware, Software, Data, Methods and People.

 

gis component
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system wherein data related to earth, associated phenomena, and events is mapped and analyzed. It is a powerful system that incorporates spatial data, manages it, analyzes it, answers geographic queries and provides great visualization capability. A GIS has five components that make it effective.
  • Hardware:

hardware

Hardware consists of the technical equipment needed to run a GIS efficiently. It includes computer/s (standalone / networked) with good configuration – good processing capability to run the GIS software, enough hard disk space to store large spatial data, and input and output devices such as scanners, printers, etc.

  •  Software:

GIS software helps to store, analyze, and display geographic information in the form of maps and reports. It provides the a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy display and access to tools for input, visualizing, processing, editing, analyzing and querying geographic data. Data is accessed and managed through Data Base Management System (DBMS).

  • Data:

database

The most important thing in GIS is the data – how it is managed and accessed. Data is stored as geographic data (spatial data) and related tabular data (non-spatial data). Data comes in various formats, and GIS integrates such spatial data and non-spatial data by using DBMS. It is the key functionality of GIS that helps in organizing, managing and accessing data.

  • Methods:

methods

To make a GIS system work properly requires not only the necessary investments in hardware, software and data, but also requires knowledge to utilize the GIS technology. The methods are the procedure followed to answer the question need to be resolved. Method in GIS includes how the data will be accessed, stored, managed, processed, analyzed, and finally presented as output for particular application.

  • People:

people

People in GIS are technical persons (GIS managers, database administrators, specialists, analysts, and programmers) who design and maintain the GIS work and those who use it. They are the ones who make GIS work.

People in GIS can be categorized into: viewers – the people who just use GIS for reference; general users – who use GIS for business, services, and making decisions such as planners, scientists, engineers, etc; GIS specialists: who are the backbone of GIS and maintain, process and analyze geographic data. They provide technical support to the users.

 


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  • Darknet

    Definition:

    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.

    Examples:

    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
    •  

    Cons:

    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.