Kalamkari or qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in parts of India and Iran. Its name originates in the Persian which is derived from the words qalam (pen) and kari (craftmanship), meaning drawing with a pen.
The Machilipatnam Kalamkari craft made at Pedana near by Machilipatnam in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, evolved with patronage of the Mughals and the Golconda sultanate.
Ajrakh Hand Block Printing – Gujarat – Khatri Abdul Razak Mohmed
Ajrak is a name given to a unique form of block printed shawls and tiles found in Sindh, Pakistan; Kutch, Gujarat; and Barmer, Rajasthan in India. These shawls display special designs and patterns made using block printing by stamps. Common colours used while making these patterns may include but are not limited to blue, red, black, yellow and green. Over the years, ajraks have become a symbol of the Sindhi culture and traditions
Bidri Craft – Karnataka – Abdul Raouf
Bidriware is a metal handicraft from Bidar. It was developed in the 14th century C.E. during the rule of the Bahamani Sultans.The term ‘Bidriware’ originates from the township of Bidar, which is still the chief centre for the manufacture of the unique metalware.Due to its striking inlay artwork, Bidriware is an important export handicraft of India and is prized as a symbol of wealth. The metal used is a blackened alloy of zinc and copper inlaid with thin sheets of pure silver.This native art form has obtained Geographical Indications (GI) registry.
Thewa is a craft practised by a few craftsmen who specialise in the art of fusing filigreed gold sheets on to glass. The craft of thewa is still practised by hereditary craftspersons in the small fortified town of Pratapgarh in district Chittorgarh of south Rajasthan and in Rampur in Madhya Pradesh. This unique craft uses plaques of glass as its base material. Till today the tradition of using red, green, and blue glass continues.The technique of thewa has been used to create extremely interesting ornaments, plates, trays and jewellery, as well as small objects for daily use. This skill and the expertise required to create thewa objects is unique to Pratapgarh and Rampur. However, in the 19th century the towns of Indore and Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh also achieved widespread fame for this jewellery craft.
Stone Carving – Odisha – Shri Pravakar Maharana
Stone carving in Odisha is the ancient practice of sculpting stone into art and utilitarian objects. It is an ancient practice in the Indian state of Odisha. Stone carving is practiced by artisans mainly in Puri, Bhubaneswar and Lalitgiri in the Cuttack district, though some carvings can be found in Khiching in the Mayurbhanj District. Stone carving is one of the major handcrafts of Odisha. The art form primarily consists of custom carved works, with the Sun Temple of Konark and its intricate sculpture and delicate carvings on the red vivid sandstone exemplifying the practice. Other noteworthy monuments include the Stupas of Udayagiri and Ratnagiri and the temples at Jagannath, Lingaraj, Mukteshwar and as well as other temples in the region.
Mithila Painting – Bihar – Smt.Punam Das
Mithila painting (also known as Madhubani painting) is practiced in the Mithila state of Nepal and in the Bihar state of India. Painting is done with fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments, and is characterized by eye-catching geometrical patterns. There is ritual content for particular occasions, such as birth or marriage, and festivals, such as Holi, Surya Shasti, Kali Puja, Upanayanam, Durga Puja. The Mithila region, from which the name Mithila art is derived, is believed to have been the kingdom of King Janak in present-day Janakpur in Nepal.
Papier-mâché is a handicraft of Kashmir that was brought by Muslims from Persia in the 15th century. It is based primarily on paper pulp, and is a richly decorated, colourful artifact; generally in the form of vases, bowls, or cups (with and without metal rims), boxes, trays, bases of lamps, and many other small objects. These are made in homes, and workshops, in Srinagar, and other parts of the Kashmir Valley, and are marketed primarily within India, although there is a significant international market
The product is protected under the Geographic Indication Act 1999 of Government of India, and was registered by the Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks during the period from April 2011 to March 2012 under the title “Kashmir Paper Machie”
It is believed that the craft emerged during the construction of temples and converted into hereditary craft for some families. Raghurajpura is famous for the artists belonging to this craft. Great or the well known tales are etched on palm leaf bearing in mind all ethics of craft and mythology.
Bone Carving – Uttar Pradesh – Shri Israr Ahmed
The British introduced ivory on furniture.Since the worldwide ban on ivory, craftsmen have been carving camel and buffalo bone with great skills.
Meenakari is a crystal form of glass fused with metal oxides like silver, gold, copper and zinc. The meenakari of Varanasi is known by its pink colour and is known as gulabi meenakari.
The Pink painted enamel style was brought in Varanasi by the Persian enamellists around early 17th century during the Mughal era. This enameling style reached its peak of perfection at the Persian Court at Isfahan during the Qajar dynasty. The art of Meenakari was prosperous till about hundred year ago. Today there are only a handful of craft persons. They work on gold enamel, and silver enamel jewelry and other objects.
Black Pottery – Uttar Pradesh – Shri Sohit Kumar Prajapati
The black clay pottery of Nizamabad in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, India is unique type of clay pottery known for its dark shiny body with engraved silver patterns.It was registered for Geographical Indication tag in December 2015
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.