Prelude :-   Kindly note that  we   publish current events after due diligence  and we stick to our motto – “Picking relevant from the sea of  Irrelevant” .Recently many of you would have come across the words like :- “Cow” , “Intolerance” , “beef”  etc. if you go through the news papers of past 1 or 2 month , you would notice that these 2 or 3 words  generated enough content for the newspaper publishers.Article after articles have been published on this issues and left for our consumption. Yet , We at UPSCTREE have not publish a single news related to these items, the reasons are pretty simple  :- “It is not relevant” . We stay away from political rhetoric from publishing, our only goal is to publish the content  – as relevant as possible,  – as concrete as possible – and as worthy of your time as possible.We similarly request you to not to let yourself dragged in to the realm of rhetoric and derail  yourself from objectivity( This happens with many aspirants). This issues are created in vacuum and will die there.

India as a civilization has flourished for thousand years  because , the issues of this nature has remained as exceptions and exceptions are not rules.This civilization has endured for thousand years and it has the resilience to endure for eternity.

Meanwhile we stay focused by maintaining our calm  and objectivity. If any issues or matter related to society troubles you , just pick our constitution and start reading , you will find answers to your problems there  , solutions to your dilemma there  and redemption to your  soul there.It is the holy book of this land , yet it has not come from a religious institution but from the functioning of our reasoning mind; it gives peace in our trouble , it guides when it is dark and  it makes us complete, as Indians.

1) Madhesi People – India and Nepal :-

  • The flat southern region of Nepal – the Terai – is known as Madhesh (Madhesh) in the Nepalese language and its indigenous inhabitants are called Madhesi. Terai is a southern strip of the country. The Terai region is mostly a flatland. People of Terai are culturally distinct. According to the population census in 2011, Terai occupies 17% of the total area of Nepal and has 51% (22% Madhesi and 29 Non-Madhesi) of the Nepalese population.
  • Nepal has recently adopted its constitution and non-representation or inadequate representation in the Constitution for Madhesi people, led to the Indo- Nepal Skirmishes.The issue lies on the non inclusive nature in the newly adopted Nepalese constitution.
  • The issues and amendments as follows:-
    * Article 63 (3) of the Interim Constitution provided electoral constituencies based on population, geography and special characteristics, “and in the case of Madhes on the basis of percentage of population”. Under this provision, Madhes, with more than 50 per cent of the population, got 50 per cent of seats in Parliament. The latter phrase has been omitted in Article 84 of the new Constitution.

    *In Article 21 of the Interim Constitution, it was mentioned that various groups would have “the right to participate in state structures on the basis of principles of proportional inclusion”. In the new Constitution (Article 42), the word “proportional” has been dropped and it should be re-inserted.

    *Article 283 of the Constitution states that only citizens by descent will be entitled to hold the posts of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker of Parliament, Chairperson of National Assembly, Head of Province, Chief Minister, Speaker of Provincial Assembly and Chief of Security Bodies. This clause is seen as discriminatory for the large number of Madhesis who have acquired citizenship by birth or naturalization.

    *Article 86 of the new Constitution states that National Assembly will comprise 8 members from each of 7 States and 3 nominated members. Madhesi parties want representation in National Assembly to be based on population of the Provinces.

    *Five disputed districts of Kanchanpur, Kailali, Sunsari, Jhapa and Morang: Based on the majority of the population, these districts or parts of them may be included in the neighboring Madhes Provinces.

    *Article 154of the Interim Constitution provided for delineation of electoral constituencies every 10 years. This has been increased to 20 years in Article 281 of the new Constitution. Echoing the Madhesi parties, India wants this restored to 10 years.

    *Article 11(6) states that a foreign woman married to a Nepali citizen may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for in a federal law. Madhesi parties want acquisition of naturalized citizenship to be automatic on application.

2) Forest dwellers offer to step out of their hamlets , so as to  minimize the man-tiger conflict and earn a livelihood :-

  • In a bid that could save the forest that sustained them through their lives, about 900 families of Adivasis and other forest-occupying communities in Telangana that live in tiger reserves in Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts have asked the State government to relocate them to non-forest terrain.
  • The move, mostly initiated by the Gond tribe in Adilabad and Chenchus in Mahbubnagar, could also contribute to the survival of endangered tigers in Telangana whose count is as low as 20, according to the recent census
  • Four Gond habitations of the Kawal Tiger Reserve in Adilabad and an equal number of them inhabited by Chenchus in the Amrabad tiger reserve, a part of which falls under Mahbubnagar district, have expressed their desire to move out of the protected tiger zone.
  • ‘Project Tiger’ :-The scheme that is aimed at supporting the ecosystem of tigers, provides a compensation of up to Rs. 10 lakh or five acres to Adivasis who want to relocate from forests that encompass tiger reserves in the country.
  • These tribal hamlets  are completely dependent on forest produce like bamboo. But depletion of forest has resulted in loss of livelihood. Hence a lot many have come forward to move out of the reserves

3)Pelican and Painted stork welcomed in Kolleru WildLife Sancturay :-

  • India has been a country that welcomes the visitors, in this context the situation at Kolleru Wildlife sanctuary has a telling of its own. Many official have been engaged in increasing the water level of the lake as  lack of rain rendered the lake as a squeezed wetland. The lake is home to many migratory bird and breeding ground . It is especially known for hosting the Pelicans.
  • As the winter sets in , the officials, knowing the unsuitability of the lake to sustain the upcoming visitors has resorted to artificial methods to maintain the ecosystem and help the Pelicans and Painted  Stork enjoy their stay here.
  • Kolleru Lake  is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari delta.  The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for these two rivers. The lake is fed directly by water from the seasonal Budameru and Tammileru streams, and is connected to the Krishna and Godavari systems numerous channels. Many birds migrate here in winter, such as Siberian crane, ibis, and painted storks. The lake was an important habitat for an estimated 20 million resident and migratory birds, including the grey or spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis).It is a bird lovers paradise.

4)Zangmu Dam of China on Brahmputra and it’s Implication on India:-

  • The Zangmu Dam  is a gravity dam on the Brahmaputra River 9 km (5.6 mi) northwest of Gyaca in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power production using run-of-the-river technology.It is part of the Zangmu Hydropower Project and will support a 510 MW power station. Construction began in 2009 and the first generator was commissioned in November 2014. It is commissioned on 13th OCT 2015.It is the first dam on the Brahmaputra/Yarlung Zangbo River and has caused controversy in India, which lies downstream.
  • Implication In general:-
    • Himalaya is geologically and ecologically a sensitive region, hence construction of project in a fragile region can wreck havoc in case of Natural disaster. (For eg- Uttrakhand Flood in 2013). The disaster’s destruction capability increases multi-fold due to project like this .
    • It is well known that hydro projects in unstable region can generate  artificial earthquake ( e.g.- Koyna reservoir induced earthquake of 1967)
    • Excessive damming and river management leads to choking of steams down stream and increases sediment load at the dam site leading to siltation
  • Implications for India :-
    • Trust deficit between India and China is well known. Dams and river channels can be manipulated to serve a country’s need in case of a geopolitical conflict or war.
    • China claims it as a run-of-the-river dam , however it is building network of dams which are closely spaced , thus contradicting the run-of-the -river concept.
    • The near by Gyama Valley is highly exploited and it may pollute the water with heavy metals , which may badly impact the aquatic and human life downstream .
    • By 2050, the annual runoff in the Brahmaputra is projected to decline by 14 per cent. This will have significant implications for food security and social stability, given the impact on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture
  • Way Forward:-
    • It would be highly improbable to pursue any country from exercising its sovereign power in its sovereign territory, thus options for India is highly limited.
    • Confrontation is better avoided.
    • India and China can engage in  water management and related data sharing in a co-operative manner  – it is the only way out.
    • India may build engineering solutions to the problems that may  mitigate manipulations by China in  case of a geopolitical conflict.

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