There is a change in pattern of marking. There are 10 questions carrying 10 marks each and has to be written in 150 words (First 10 questions) and the there are 10 questions carrying 15 marks each and has to be written in 250 words.

1)How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of the Gupta numismatics art is not at all noticeable in later times. (150 words-10 Mark)

2)Clarify how mid-eighteenth century India was beset with the spectre of a fragmented polity. (150 words-10 Mark)

3)Why did “moderates” fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed strategy and political goals by the end of nineteenth century. (150 words-10 Mark)

4)What problems were germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula ?   (150 words-10 Mark)

5)How does Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of earth ?  (150 words-10 Mark)

6)”In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development.” Discuss.  (150 words-10 Mark)

7) Mention advantages of cultivation of pulses because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the United Nations.  (150 words-10 Mark)

8)How does cryosphere affect global climate ? (150 words-10 Mark)

9) In the context of diversity of India, can it be said that the regions form cultural units rather than the states? Give reasons with examples for your viewpoint.  (150 words-10 Mark)

10)What are the two major legal initiatives of state since independence, addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes ?  (150 words-10 Mark)

11) The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at present. Elaborate.  (250 words-15 Mark)

12)Examine how decline of traditional artisan industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. (250 words-15 marks)

13)Highlight the importance the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since the twenties of the last century. (250 words-15 marks)

14)Account for variation in ocean salinity and discuss the multi-dimensional effects. (250 words-15 marks)

15)Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located near to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many developing countries. Explain its implications. (250 words-15 marks)

16)In what ways can floods be converted into sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India ? (250 words-15 marks)

17) What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50% of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia ? (250 words-15 marks)

18)The Women’s question arose in modern India’s a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What were the major issues and debates concerning women in that period ? (250 words-15 marks)

19) Distinguish between religiousnesss/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former got transformed into latter in independent India (250 words-15 marks)

20)”The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with example.(250 words-15 marks)




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  • Darknet


    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.