Over these years, no other form of financial services has had the kind of far-reaching impact, in terms of fostering financial inclusion, as microcredit has.
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Access to small, collateral-free loans for economically productive purposes has helped transform the lives of millions at the bottom-of-the-pyramid—especially women. It has helped free them from the clutches of informal moneylenders who would charge exorbitant rates of interest, usurp collateral in the form of land, gold or other assets, and perpetuate a cycle of indebtedness and poverty.
That microfinance ably serves its purpose is evident from the fact that despite several challenges along the way, the industry has not only survived, but grown significantly. Over the past decade, India’s microfinance industry has grown at a compound annual growth rate of 26% to reach ₹2.36 trillion.
It has helped 50 million economically vulnerable Indians, 99% of them women, live a life of dignity and financial independence. Assuming that these 50 million people who took a loan to start a small business employed at least one other person, it translates into 50 million additional jobs in the country.
This creates a ‘network effect’ that has a social impact at scale. Is there any other industry that could have supported these people—who are poor, have little or no assets to their names, and no proper documentation needed for traditional credit—in the manner that microcredit did? It’s doubtful.
Sure, there have been hurdles along the way. But the industry’s inherent resilience, which it draws from robust demand among people at the grassroots looking for some handholding to shape their lives, has made it stronger. Several events over the years—a crisis in Andhra Pradesh in 2010; demonetization in 2016; cyclones and floods in various Indian states—have failed to dent the industry, which continues to serve a vital need.
Recommendations of the Malegam Committee constituted by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), which became regulations, and practices such as relying on credit bureau data to assess a borrower’s creditworthiness have helped the industry immensely. The vital role that microfinance plays in the last-mile delivery of financial services was acknowledged, and that is why an institution like Bandhan Bank was given a banking licence. Subsequently, eight out of the 10 small finance bank licences granted were also given to microfinance institutions.
Like everything else in life, the microcredit sector is evolving. It is indeed heartening to note that RBI has sought to undertake a comprehensive review of the sector again, after 10 years, to better align the regulatory framework with the sector’s current realities.
Going forward, entities engaged in microfinance need to focus on a few specific tasks for the holistic development of the sector. One of them is to promote financial literacy through group meetings of borrowers. Second, organizations should complement their microcredit operations with social development projects and community-connect initiatives. Third, prospective borrowers’ indebtedness and ability to repay dues should be assessed properly. Fourth, loans must be given only for income-generation purposes. Fifth, every microfinance organization should devote time and resources for capacity building at the grassroots. And last but not least, rather than focusing on taking over the existing debt of a borrower, or lending to her further, institutions should focus on bringing new-to-credit customers into the fold.
There is no better feeling than to see smiles on the faces of people whose lives have been improved by access to organized-sector finance. But the journey has only just begun, and there is much more that we, as a nation, collectively need to do in order to bring a vast population of unbanked and underbanked Indians into the fold of formal financial services.
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.