GS II Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

 November 12: World Pneumonia Day

2016 Theme: “Keep the Promise, Stop Pneumonia Now”.

India’s pneumonia and diarrhoea burden

  • 5.9 million children died before reaching their 5th birth day out of which 16% are due to Pneumonia and 9% due to diarrhoea
  • India’s position is much where it stood in the year 2015. The Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report has placed India among the top of the list of 15 nations. But The report also notes that India is among the 12 nations that have improved their Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) score this year
  • Five countries among those with the highest pneumonia burden are India, Indonesia, Chad, China and Somalia. These countries are still not using pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in their routine immunisation programmes which were introduced in 2000.

Preventive steps taken: Recently, India had announced a partial introduction of these vaccines in five states (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh) from 2017. Earlier in 2015, India had introduced rotavirus vaccines in four States.

GS III  Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Multi drug resistance in poultry

Researchers in Hyderabad have isolated a bacterium in chicken that may well be the source of transmission of the drug-resistant pathogen to humans. This is the first data on prevalence and isolation of H. pullorum in India.

  • The pathogen, called Helicobacter pullorum, was found in broiler and free-range chickens, which — besides being untreatable — could also be cancer-causing.
  • pullorum is commonly found in the liver and gut of poultry birds and is believed to co-evolve with its natural host.
  • Infected chicken, when consumed, are known to cause gastrointestinal infections in humans.


The greatest concern of news of resistance is H. pullorum’s ability to cause cancer. It is known to produce a cancer-causing agent called cytolethal distending toxin, which is the main concern. This toxin damages the DNA and interferes with the cell cycle. Since this bacterium also infects the liver, it increases the risk of cancer in the organ.

Cooking at temperatures higher than 60° Celsius — kills H. pullorum. However, eating uncooked or undercooked dishes like pickled chicken carries risk of infection

Important facts for prelims


PM inaugurates International Conference and Exhibition on Sugarcane Value Chain Vision 2025 Sugar – at Pune

PM Modi recently inaugurated the International Conference and Exhibition on Sugarcane Value Chain Vision 2025 Sugar – at Pune.

  • Vasantdada Sugar Institute (VSI) has organized the conference.
  • There was an exhibition showcasing various technological developments in sugar industry and live demonstrations of sugarcane crop showing various advance technologies and practices in cultivation.

About VSI: VSI is an autonomous body established in 1975 by cane growers of co-operative sugar mills in Maharashtra with support of State and Central government.

 36th India International Trade Fair in New Delhi

  • The 36th edition of India International Trade Fair (IITF) has started at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.
  • The theme of 2016 IITF is Digital India
  • The 2016 IITF has been organised by the India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), under aegis of Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • This year’s theme highlights country’s persistent efforts to alleviate poverty through meaningful convergence of digital technologies and e-governance.
  • It will also manifest a multi-pronged strategy of Indian economy driven by ‘Make in India’ initiative and reforms to transform trade and industry into an engine of socio-economic growth.


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  • Darknet


    Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.

    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
    • Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
    • Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
    • Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
    • Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.