Scientists turn CO2 into rock to combat climate change:-

In a unique experiment, scientists turned carbon dioxide into a stone by pumping it with water underground. Carbon dioxide is a huge menace and probably the only way to fight it is to bury it as deep as possible.

In the experiment called CarbFix, scientists pumped CO2 and water 540 metre underground into volcanic rock at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in Iceland- the world’s largest geothermal facility. After two years, 95% of the gas was captured and converted.

In this method, CO2 is dissolved with water and the mixture is pumped into volcanic rocks called basalts. Once that happens, the CO2 turns into a solid mineral (calcite), which can then be stored.

The Iceland project has been increased in scale and is set to store 10,000 tons of CO2 a year.


  • Carbon capture, however, can be expensive – especially the capturing part. Once the gas is grabbed from the air storing it is another issue.
  • It can be stored underground and is sometimes injected to depleted oil wells, but there are concerns about monitoring it and preventing it from escaping.
  • It’s not yet clear whether this approach could be viable on a large scale. The process requires a significant amount of water — 25 tons for every ton of CO2 — and some question whether it could be easily applied to other parts of the world.

Axis Bank launches India’s first certified green bond at London Stock Exchange

Axis Bank has raised $500 million at the London Stock Exchange after it launched India’s first internationally-listed certified green bond to finance climate change solutions around the world.

The proceeds of the bond will be invested in green energy, transportation and infrastructure projects, reinforcing India’s commitment to produce 175,000 MW of renewable power by 2022.

Green bonds :-They are like any other debt instrument but the funds raised from such a bond sale are used exclusively for renewable energy projects.With the Indian government and private sector increasingly focusing on renewable energy projects, the demand for such funds is expected to rise over time.

Government frames new policy for ads in print media

Ministry of Information & Broadcasting has framed a New Print Media Advertisement Policy for Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity (DAVP) with the objective to promote transparency and accountability in issuing of advertisements in print media.

The policy focuses on streamlining release of Government advertisements and to also promote equity and fairness among various categories of newspapers/periodicals.

Highlights of the policy:

  • For the first time, the policy introduces a new marking system to incentivise newspapers which have a better professional standing and get their circulation verified by Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) or Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI).
  • The marking system is based on six objective criteria. The six parameters include circulation certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) or the Registrar of Newspapers in India (RNI) (25 marks), employee provident fund subscription (20), number of pages (20), subscription to news services of PTI, UNI or Hindustan Samachar (15).
  • Other criteria include a paper having its own printing press (10) and annual subscriptions to the Press Council of India (10).
  • Advertisements shall be released by DAVP to newspapers based on marks obtained by the publication.
  • The policy framework includes circulation verification for empanelment of newspapers and journals with DAVP. It involves certification by RNI or ABC if circulation exceeds 45,000 copies per publishing day and for circulation up to 45,000 copies per publishing day certificate from cost or chartered accountant, statutory auditor certificate or ABC is mandated.w
  • The policy also says that RNI circulation certificate , ill be valid for a period of two years from the date of issue and in case of ABCthe current certificate will be used.
  • The policy allows relaxations to encourage publications in regional languages, small and medium newspapers, mass circulated newspapers (over 1 lakh), papers in the Northeast, Jammu and Kashmir and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • To promote regional equity, the budget for all India release of ads shall be divided among states based on circulation of newspapers in each state or language.





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    The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.


    Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.

    These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.

    Pros :

    • Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
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    • Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
    • Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.


    • Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
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    AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.


    • Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
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    • Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
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