Please note that this is not an article on the principles of climate change, rather it is more of a detailed and comprehensive action and policies that has India adopted to contribute towards the cause of  ‘climate change’.


We are well aware of climate change issues and its repercussion on the world and especially on human being as a species. It is indeed a grave threat to survival of mankind.Given the primacy of the issue , multiple organizations, governments and agencies are working on it. One of the primary engaging platform in this regard is – UNFCC .

COP21 , UNFCC and Paris:-

  • The international political response to climate change began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, where the ‘Rio Convention’ included the adoption of the UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This convention set out a framework for action aimed at stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The UNFCCC which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has a near-universal membership of 195 parties.
  • The main objective of the annual Conference of Parties (COP) is to review the Convention’s implementation. The first COP took place in Berlin in 1995 and significant meetings since then have included COP3 where the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, COP11 where the Montreal Action Plan was produced, COP15 in Copenhagen where an agreement to success Kyoto Protocol was unfortunately not realised and COP17 in Durban where the Green Climate Fund was created.
  • In 2015 COP21, also known as the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, will, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, aim to achieve a legally binding and universal agreement on climate, with the aim of keeping global warming below 2°C.
  • France will play a leading international role in hosting this seminal conference, and COP21 will be one of the largest international conferences ever held in the country.

  What is an INDC?

  • Countries across the globe committed to create a new international climate agreement  by the conclusion of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015. In preparation, countries have agreed to publicly outline what post-2020 climate actions they intend to take under a new international agreement, known as their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). The INDCs will largely determine whether the world achieves an ambitious 2015 agreement and is put on a path toward a low-carbon, climate-resilient future.

  • INDCs are the primary means for governments to communicate internationally the steps they will take to address climate change in their own countries. INDCs will reflect each country’s ambition for reducing emissions, taking into account its domestic circumstances and capabilities. Some countries may also address how they’ll adapt to climate change impacts, and what support they need from, or will provide to, other countries to adopt low-carbon pathways and to build climate resilience

India and INDC :-

  • India’s environment policy is anchored in the  Constitution of India,  Article 48-A  of  the Constitution states that “The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment  and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country”.
  • The  broad  policy  framework  on  environment  and  climate  change  is  laid  down  by  the National Environment Policy (NEP)2006, which promotes sustainable development along with  respect  for  ecological  constraints  and  the  imperatives  of  social  justice
  • The Energy Conservation Act has be en enacted to encourage efficient use of energy and its conservation. The National  Policy  for  Farmers focuses  on  sustainable  development  of  agriculture.  The  National  Electricity  Policy  (NEP) underscores  the  focus  on universalizing  access  to electricity  and promoting  renewable  sources  of  energy,  as  does  the Integrated  Energy Policy (IEP)
  • As  a  result, the  emission  intensity  of  our  GDP  has  decreased  by  12%  between  2005  and  2010. It  is  a  matter  of  satisfaction  that  United Nations  Environment  Programme (UNEP) in  its  Emission  Gap  Report  2014  has recognized India as one of the countries on course to achieving its voluntary goal
  • India is running  one of the largest renewable capacity expansion programs in the world.Between  2002  and  2015,  the  share  of  renewable  grid  capacity  has  increased  over  6  times, from  2%  (3.9  GW)  to  around  13%  (36GW). This  momentum  of  a  tenfold  increase  in  the previous  decade  is  to  be  significantly  scaled  up  with  the aim  to  achieve  175  GW  renewable energy capacity in the next few years.India has also decided to anchor a global solar alliance, InSPA  (International Agency  for  Solar  Policy  &  Application),  of  all  countries  located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  • Wind  energy has  been  the  predominant  contributor  to  the  renewable  energy  growth  in  India accounting for 23.76GW (65.2%) of the renewable installed capacity, making India the 5th largest wind power producer in the world. With a potential of more than 100 GW, the aim is to achieve a target of 60 GW of wind power installed capacity by 2022.
  • Solar  power in  India  is  poised  to  grow  significantly  with  Solar  Mission  as  a  major initiative  of  the  Government  of  India. Solar  power  installed  capacity  has increased  from only 3.7 MW in 2005 to about 4060 MW in 2015, with a CAGR of more than 100% over the  decade.  The  ambitious  solar  expansion  programme  seeks  to  enhance  the  capacity  to 100  GW  by  2022, which  is  expected  to  be  scaled  up  further  thereafter. A  scheme  for development  of  25 Solar  Parks, Ultra  Mega  Solar  Power  Projects,  canal  top  solar projects  and  one  hundred  thousand  solar  pumps  for  farmers is  at  different  stages  of
    implementation.  Government  of  India  is  also  promoting  solarization  of  all  the  55,000 petrol pumps across the country out of which about 3,135 petrol pumps have already been solarized
  • Biomass  energy constitutes  about  18%  of  total  primary  energy  use  in  the  country  and more than 70% of the country’s population depends on it.However
    ,it is currently used in  an  inefficient  manner  with  high  levels  of  indoor  pollution.  A  number  of  programmes have  been  initiated  for  promotion  of  cleaner  and  more  efficient  use,  including  biomass based  electricity  generation.  It  is  envisaged  to  increase  biomass  installed  capacity  to  10 GW by 2022 from current capacity of 4.4GW.
  • Hydropower contributes  about  46.1 GW to  current  portfolio  of installed  capacity,  of which 4.1GW is small hydro (upto 25 MW) and 41.99 GW is large hydro (more
    than 25 MW).  Special  programmes  to  promote  small  and  mini  hydel  projects,new  and  efficient designs of water mills have been introduced for electrification of remote villages.With a vast potential of more than 100 GW, a number of policy initiatives and actions are being undertaken to aggressively pursue development of country’s vast hydro potential.
  • India  is  promoting Nuclear  Power as  a  safe,  environmentally  benign  and  economically viable source to meet the increasing electricity needs of the country. With a 2.2% share in current  installed  capacity,  total  installed  capacity  of  nuclear  power  in  operation  is  5780 MW.  Additionally  six  reactors  with  an  installed  capacity  of  4300 MW  are  at  different stages  of  commissioning  and  construction. Efforts  are  being  made  to  achieve  63  GW installed capacity by the year 2032, if supply of fuel is ensured.
  • National  Smart  Grid  Mission has  been  launched  to  bring  efficiency  in  power  supply network and facilitate reduction in losses and outages.Green Energy corridor projects worth INR(Indian National Rupee) 380 billion (USD 6 billion) are also being rolled out to ensure evacuation of renewable energy.
  •  Efficient lighting in India – From CFL to LED
  • Energy  Conservation  Building  Code  (ECBC) sets  minimum  energy  standards  for new commercial buildings.
  • In  order  to  both  recognize  energy-efficient  buildings,  as  well as  to  stimulate  their  large scale  replication,  India  has  developed  its  own  building-energy  rating  system GRIHA ( Green  Rating  for  Integrated  Habitat  Assessment), based  on  34  criteria  like site planning,  conservation  and  efficient  tilization  of  resources  etc.  A  number  of  buildings including  Commonwealth  Games  Village have  been  rated  using  GRIHA  system.  Indira Paryavaran Bhawan, the headquarters of Central Government’s Ministry of Environment, Forest  &  Climate  Change  is  a  model  building  of  Government  of  India  and  has  received LEED India Platinum and a 5 Star GRIHA rating. It is a ‘Net Zero Energy’ building with 100% onsite power generation.
  • DEVELOPING CLIMATE RESILIENT URBAN CENTERS:- Government  of  India  in  recent  times  has  launched  a  number  of  schemes  for  transformation and   rejuvenation   of   urban   areas   including Smart   Cities   Mission, Atal   Mission   for Rejuvenation   and   Urban   Transformation   (AMRUT)and National   Heritage   City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY).
  • The Waste to Energy capacity is sought to be enhanced.Government is also encouraging
    conversion of waste to compost by linking it with sale of fertilizers and providing market
    development assistance.
  • SAFE, SMART AND SUSTAINABLE GREEN TRANSPORTATION NETWORK :- In   the   endeavor   towards   a   low   carbon   economy,   India   is   focusing   on   low   carbon
    infrastructure  and  public  transport  systems  like Dedicated  Freight  Corridors and  energy efficient railways to reduce their environmental impact.Dedicated  Freight  Corridors  (DFCs) have  been  introduced  across  the  country.  In  the first  phase,two  corridors  viz.  1520  km  Mumbai-Delhi  (Western  edicated  Freight Corridor)  and  1856  km  Ludhiana-Dankuni  (Eastern  Dedicated  Freight  Corridor)  are being  constructed.The project is expected to reduce emissions by  about  457 million ton CO2 over  a  30  year  period.  With  a  number  of  energy  efficiency  measures  undertaken, Indian  Railways  has  achieved  19.7%  improvement  in  Specific  Fuel  Consumption  for Freight Service Locomotives and 21.2% improvement for Coaching Service Locomotives during  the  last  10  years.Indian  Railways  is  also  installing  solar  power  on  its  land  and roof tops of coaches.
  • Recognizing  its  fuel  efficiency,  environmental  friendliness  and  cost  effectiveness,  the Government  is  promoting  growth  of  Coastal  Shipping  and  Inland  Water  Transport.To enhance the inland water ways transport, Government has announced the  implementation of Jal  Marg  Vikas for  capacity  augmentation  of  National  Water  Way – 1.  It  is  also proposed to establish integrated Waterways transportation grid with a view to connecting all  existing  and  proposed  National  waterways  with  road,  rail  and  ports  connectivity. Another  initiative  in  this  direction  is  the Sagarmala  Project with  the  objective  to augment    port -led    development    and    promote    efficient    transportation    of    goods.Bharatmala  Project which  envisions  constructing  about  5,000  km  of  road  network  all along the coastal areas will further provide connectivity to these ports.
  • Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) to reduce vehicular traffic in urban region
  • Solar powered toll plazas have been envisaged as a mandatory requirement for toll
    collection across the country.
  • India  has  recently  formulated Green  Highways  (Plantation  &  Maintenance) Policy  to develop  140,000  km  long  “tree-line”  with  plantation  along  both  ides  of  national highways. 1% of total civil cost of projects is to be set aside to implement the policy.
  • Government of India has approved signing of the Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) Motor Vehicle Agreement to promote safe, economical efficient and environmentally sound road transport in the sub-region and support regional integration.
  • Faster  Adoption  and  Manufacturing  of  Hybrid  &  Electric   in  India  (FAME India) is  a  scheme  formulated  as  part  of  the National  Electric  Mobility  Mission  Plan 2020 (NEMMP)  to  promote  faster  a doption  and  manufacturing  of  hybrid  and  electric vehicles in the country by providing incentives.
  • India aims to improve fuel standards by switching from Bharat Stage IV (BS IV) fuels to Bharat Stage V (BS V)/Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) across the country in the near future.
  • National  Policy  on  Biofuels has  adopted  an  aspirational  target  of  20%  blending  of biofuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The government also launched the National Bio-diesel  Mission identifying Jatropha  curcas as  the  most  suitable  tree -borne  oilseed for  bio-diesel  production.With  the  intention  of  further  promoting  biofuels,  India  has begun  consultations  on  allowing  5%  blending  of  biofuels  in  diesel  that  would  be consumed by bulk users such as the railways and defence establishments.
  • The Fly  Ash  Utilisation Policy makes  it  mandatory  to  use  only  fly  ash/  fly  ash  based products in construction of buildings, roads and reclamation / compaction of land within a radius  of  100  km from  a  coal  or  lignite  based  thermal  power  plant,  thus  displacing  the cement  use.  It  also  mandates  utilisation  of Fly  Ash for  backfilling  or  stowing  of  the mines.
  • Smart Power for Environmentally -sound Economic Development (SPEED) is a program that aims at electrification of rural areas based on a decentralized renewable energy system
  • GreenCo Rating System is first of its kind in the world which assesses companies on
    their environmental performance across 10 different parameters to help them develop a
    roadmap to improve further.
  • New Ventures India (NVI) is an initiative to support cleantech entrepreneurs in
    developing their business plans and access finance and markets.
  • The Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) Cluster Programs for Energy Efficiency covers more than 150 clusters all over the country and has resulted in substantial energy saving, quality improvement and improved competitiveness.
  • The National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) aims at enhancing food security and protection of resources such as land, water, biodiversity and genetics.
  • Government of India adopted a mega project called the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) .Its four main modules include Natural Resource Management, improving crop production,livestock and fisheries and institutional interventions.
  • The  main  objective  of  India’s  National  Water  Mission(NWM) is  “conservation  of water,  minimizing  wastage  and  ensuring  its  more  equitable  distribution  both  across  and within States through integrated water resources development and management”. One of the key goals of the mission is to enhance water use efficiency by 20%.
  • Neeranchal is a recent programme by Government to give additional impetus to
    watershed development in the country.
  • India is also implementing programmes for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).The vision of the project is to build national capacity for implementation of
    comprehensive coastal management through ecological management, conservation and
    protection of critical habitats, coastal geomorphology and geology of coastal and marine
    areas, coastal engineering, socio-economic aspects, policy and legal issues and other.
  • Another initiative to protect coastal livelihood is ‘Mangroves for the Future (MFF)
    coordinated by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in India.
  • A network of 127 institutions called “INCCA” (Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment) has been set up to share knowledge and work in a collaborative manner on
    climate change issues.
  • National Adaption Fund has been created, Coal cess quadrupled(rs 50 to rs 200), reduction on fuel subsidies, National mission on clean Ganga, Swachh Bharat Mission , Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana launched to promote organic farming ,Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana launched to promote efficient irrigation on the principles of  “Per drop more crop” .

This concludes the article and includes almost everything that Indian government does to fight climate changes.


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