GS III – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
HEALTH , HYGIENE & First Aid
What Is Health :-
Health is a positive state of well being, where every part of the body and mind is in harmony and in proper functioning balance with every other part. In other words, when every organ of the body is functioning normally, the state of physical well being is known as health. It has been well said that only that person can be called really healthy who has a sound mind in a sound body. Health is the characteristic of life that enables a person to live longer.
According to World Health Organisation (WHO): “Health is the state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely absence of disease”.
If a person is disease free or in a good physical state, but under stress, tension, anger, greed etc. than that person is not considered as a healthy person. Hence, in addition to physical health, we must consider the mental and emotional health also, only then spiritual and social health can be achieved and man can progress forward for the well being of the society. Let us understand the various aspects of health-
· Physical health – When the body is free from any physical ailment or abnormal condition, it is physical health.
· Mental health – The state of absence of stress, tension, worry, negative thoughts etc. is mental health.
· Emotional health – A balanced state of absence of anger, greed, proud, hatred etc. is emotional health.
· Spiritual health – To live in yourself with uniformity and harmony is spiritual health. Also, to have faith in your religion and respect & view other’s religion with equal harmony is known as spiritual health.
Community health is the art and science of maintaining, protecting and improving the health of people through organized community efforts.Health is also a major part of every culture around the worlld as evident from AYUSH – Ayurveda, Yoga, Unnani, Siddha & Homeopathy
What is Hygiene ?
Hygiene is defined as the science and art of preserving and improving health. The purpose of hygiene is to allow man to live in healthy relationship with his environment. It deals both with an individual and a community as a whole. In order to be healthy one must realize that hygiene and sanitation play a very important role.
Concept Map :-
Has there been a question related to health and first aid practices in UPSC ? The answer is yes , UPSC has asked the immediate response in case of a sun stroke in 2013 . In any case an aspirant need to be aware of all probable health responses that are classified as first aid .Here is the list of first aid :-
Press the wound firmly with your fingers or with your hand till bleeding stops.
Raise the bleeding part so that blood does not flow out quickly.
Wash the wound with clean water.
If the injured person is bleeding profusely, the wound is
bandaged with the handkerchief or a clean cloth & the person is moved to a hospital immediately.
Fractures (break in the bone)
Signs of fracture
Affected body part becomes:
Very painful (severe pain)
Victim is unable to move it
Handle the victim very gently and try to avoid all unnecessary movements.
Never attempt to bring the bones to normal position.
Support the affected part with the appropriate support like Splint, piece of wood, padding in the form of folded handkerchief, towel, newspaper or magazine.
Tie the splint firmly but not too much tight to stop the circulation.
Call a doctor immediately or take the patient to a hospital.
Switch off the current or pull out the plug and disconnect the victim from the source of current with the help of wooden stick.
Never touch the victim before disconnecting, otherwise you may get a shock.
If the victim is not breathing properly or his heart beat has stop, give artificial respiration and external cardiac massage.
Check for other injuries like shock or burn.
Take the victim to a hospital immediately.
Points to remember: 1) Never touch the victim until the current has been turned off or the victim has been separated from the electrically live wire or object. 2) Never touch the victim with wet hands or metallic objects.
Put the burnt area e.g. fingers, hand, legs under a running cold water.
Do not apply cotton wool directly over the burnt area.
Do not apply any greasy substance like cream, lotion etc. on the burnt area.
Cover the burnt area gently with a bandage or a clean cloth.
Treat the victim for the shock.
Take the victim to a hospital immediately.
Bites and Stings
A) First Aid:
Tie a bandage, handkerchief or a clean cloth above the bite area so that poison do not spread in the body. Snake Bite
Do not move the bitten area.
Gently wash the wound with water.
Victim of snake bite feels very sleepy so keep him awake.
Take the victim to a doctor immediately.
B) Dog Bite First Aid:
Wash the bitten area with soap and water.
Keep it open.
Take the victim to the doctor for anti-rabies treatment.
Swallowing Objects and choking
Children quite often put small objects in their mouth or nose like coins, beads, toy parts, electric parts, small nuts, seeds of plants etc. First Aid:
Hold the child upside down & pat vigorously on the back.
In case of grown-ups, stand behind the victim put your arms below the armpit and encircle the abdomen below the navel.
Join both the hands together and clasp it.
Press both fists on the abdomen with a quick jerk in the
midline. · If the victim fails to respond send the patient to a hospital for the removal of foreign body.
By disinfectants like phenyl, rat poison, kerosene, sleeping pills or poisonous gases like LPG, Smoke from charcoal etc. First Aid:
Make the victim vomit by the rubbing the back of the throat.
Make the victim drink plenty of water.
Take the victim to a hospital immediately.
Important Rules of First Aid:
When you are giving first aid to the victim, you are lessening the pain and making him/her comfortable before the arrival of medical help. For this you have to follow some rules, as follows:
1) Be calm–Try to be calm so that you can provide proper first aid to the victim.
2) Disperse the crowd–In case of road accident, try to keep surrounding people away from the victim and loosen his cloths so that he can breathe easily.
3) Move the victim in a suitable safe place–If the victim has received burns or an electric shock or is choking due to smoke then take him away from the accidental spot.
4) Give artificial respiration–If the patient is having difficulty in breathing, artificial respiration must be given.
5) Call for a medical help or take the victim to a hospital immediately.
Darknet, also known as dark web or darknet market, refers to the part of the internet that is not indexed or accessible through traditional search engines. It is a network of private and encrypted websites that cannot be accessed through regular web browsers and requires special software and configuration to access.
The darknet is often associated with illegal activities such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services, although not all sites on the darknet are illegal.
Examples of darknet markets include Silk Road, AlphaBay, and Dream Market, which were all shut down by law enforcement agencies in recent years.
These marketplaces operate similarly to e-commerce websites, with vendors selling various illegal goods and services, such as drugs, counterfeit documents, and hacking tools, and buyers paying with cryptocurrency for their purchases.
Anonymity: Darknet allows users to communicate and transact with each other anonymously. Users can maintain their privacy and avoid being tracked by law enforcement agencies or other entities.
Access to Information: The darknet provides access to information and resources that may be otherwise unavailable or censored on the regular internet. This can include political or sensitive information that is not allowed to be disseminated through other channels.
Freedom of Speech: The darknet can be a platform for free speech, as users are able to express their opinions and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution.
Secure Communication: Darknet sites are encrypted, which means that communication between users is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
Illegal Activities: Many darknet sites are associated with illegal activities, such as drug trafficking, weapon sales, and hacking services. Such activities can attract criminals and expose users to serious legal risks.
Scams: The darknet is a hotbed for scams, with many fake vendors and websites that aim to steal users’ personal information and cryptocurrency. The lack of regulation and oversight on the darknet means that users must be cautious when conducting transactions.
Security Risks: The use of the darknet can expose users to malware and other security risks, as many sites are not properly secured or monitored. Users may also be vulnerable to hacking or phishing attacks.
Stigma: The association of the darknet with illegal activities has created a stigma that may deter some users from using it for legitimate purposes.
AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and understanding natural language.
Virtual assistants: Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant are examples of virtual assistants that use natural language processing to understand and respond to users’ queries.
Recommendation systems: Companies like Netflix and Amazon use AI to recommend movies and products to their users based on their browsing and purchase history.
Efficiency: AI systems can work continuously without getting tired or making errors, which can save time and resources.
Personalization: AI can help provide personalized recommendations and experiences for users.
Automation: AI can automate repetitive and tedious tasks, freeing up time for humans to focus on more complex tasks.
Job loss: AI has the potential to automate jobs previously performed by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.
Bias: AI systems can be biased due to the data they are trained on, leading to unfair or discriminatory outcomes.
Safety and privacy concerns: AI systems can pose safety risks if they malfunction or are used maliciously, and can also raise privacy concerns if they collect and use personal data without consent.