GS III – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.


What Is Health :-

Health is a positive state of well being, where every part of the body and mind is in harmony and in proper functioning balance with every other part. In other words, when every organ of the body is functioning normally, the state of physical well being is known as health. It has been well said that only that person can be called really healthy who has a sound mind in a sound body. Health is the characteristic of life that enables a person to live longer.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO): “Health is the state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely absence of disease”.

If a person is disease free or in a good physical state, but under stress, tension, anger, greed etc. than that person is not considered as a healthy person. Hence, in addition to physical health, we must consider the mental and emotional health also, only then spiritual and social health can be achieved and man can progress forward for the well being of the society. Let us understand the various aspects of health-

  • · Physical health – When the body is free from any physical ailment or abnormal condition, it is physical health.
  • · Mental health – The state of absence of stress, tension, worry, negative thoughts etc. is mental health.
  • · Emotional health – A balanced state of absence of anger, greed, proud, hatred etc. is emotional health.
  • · Spiritual health – To live in yourself with uniformity and harmony is spiritual health. Also, to have faith in your  religion and respect & view other’s religion with equal harmony is known as spiritual health.

Community health is the art and science of maintaining, protecting and improving the health of people through organized community efforts.Health is also a major part of every culture around the worlld as evident from AYUSH – Ayurveda, Yoga, Unnani, Siddha & Homeopathy

What is Hygiene ?

Hygiene is defined as the science and art of preserving and improving health. The purpose of hygiene is to allow man to live in healthy relationship with his environment. It deals both with an individual and a community as a whole. In order to be healthy one must realize that hygiene and sanitation play a very important role.

Concept Map :-


Has there been a question related to health and first aid practices in UPSC  ?  The answer is yes , UPSC has asked the immediate response in case of a sun stroke in 2013 . In any case an aspirant need to be aware of all probable health responses that are classified as first aid .Here is the list of first aid :-

Index.gifExcessive Bleeding

First Aid:

  • Press the wound firmly with your fingers or with your hand till bleeding stops.
  • Raise the bleeding part so that blood does not flow out quickly.
  • Wash the wound with clean water.
  • If the injured person is bleeding profusely, the wound is

bandaged with the handkerchief or a clean cloth & the person is moved to a hospital immediately.

Index.gifFractures (break in the bone)

Signs of fracture

Affected body part becomes:

  • Very painful (severe pain)
  • Swells up
  • Victim is unable to move it

First Aid:

  • Handle the victim very gently and try to avoid all unnecessary movements.
  • Never attempt to bring the bones to normal position.
  • Support the affected part with the appropriate support like Splint, piece of wood, padding in the form of folded handkerchief, towel, newspaper or magazine.
  • Tie the splint firmly but not too much tight to stop the circulation.
  • Call a doctor immediately or take the patient to a hospital.

Index.gifElectrical Shock

  • Switch off the current or pull out the plug and disconnect the victim from the source of current with the help of wooden stick.

First Aid:

  • Never touch the victim before disconnecting, otherwise you may get a shock.
  • If the victim is not breathing properly or his heart beat has stop, give artificial respiration and external cardiac massage.
  • Check for other injuries like shock or burn.
  • Take the victim to a hospital immediately.

Points to remember: 1) Never touch the victim until the current has been turned off or the victim has been separated from the electrically live wire or object. 2) Never touch the victim with wet hands or metallic objects.


First Aid:

  • Put the burnt area e.g. fingers, hand, legs under a running cold water.
  • Do not apply cotton wool directly over the burnt area.
  • Do not apply any greasy substance like cream, lotion etc. on the burnt area.
  • Cover the burnt area gently with a bandage or a clean cloth.
  • Treat the victim for the shock.
  • Take the victim to a hospital immediately.

Index.gif Bites and Stings

A) First Aid:

  • Tie a bandage, handkerchief or a clean cloth above the bite area so that poison do not spread in the body. Snake Bite
  • Do not move the bitten area.
  • Gently wash the wound with water.
  • Victim of snake bite feels very sleepy so keep him awake.
  • Take the victim to a doctor immediately.

B) Dog Bite First Aid:

  • Wash the bitten area with soap and water.
  • Keep it open.
  • Take the victim to the doctor for anti-rabies treatment.

Index.gifSwallowing Objects and choking

Children quite often put small objects in their mouth or nose like coins, beads, toy parts, electric parts, small nuts, seeds of plants etc. First Aid:

  • Hold the child upside down & pat vigorously on the back.
  • In case of grown-ups, stand behind the victim put your arms below the armpit and encircle the abdomen below the navel.
  • Join both the hands together and clasp it.
  • Press both fists on the abdomen with a quick jerk in the

midline. · If the victim fails to respond send the patient to a hospital for the removal of foreign body.


By disinfectants like phenyl, rat poison, kerosene, sleeping pills or poisonous gases like LPG, Smoke from charcoal etc. First Aid:

  • Make the victim vomit by the rubbing the back of the throat.
  • Make the victim drink plenty of water.
  • Take the victim to a hospital immediately.

Important Rules of First Aid:

When you are giving first aid to the victim, you are lessening the pain and making him/her comfortable before the arrival of medical help. For this you have to follow some rules, as follows:
1) Be calm–Try to be calm so that you can provide proper first aid to the victim.
2) Disperse the crowd–In case of road accident, try to keep surrounding people away from the victim and loosen his cloths so that he can breathe easily.
3) Move the victim in a suitable safe place–If the victim has received burns or an electric shock or is choking due to smoke then take him away from the accidental spot.
4) Give artificial respiration–If the patient is having difficulty in breathing, artificial respiration must be given.
5) Call for a medical help or take the victim to a hospital immediately.

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