Animals in our backyard:-
Monkeys, along with Grey langurs and bonnet macaques, have adapted to urban habitats over the years.Out of the nearly 225 living species of non-human primates, these three species have adapted to the urban way of life.
In case of other animals, India does not lack protected areas, but the very idea of a protected area appears skewed. The protected areas were historically meant to be the breeding grounds for animals raised in the wild for the purpose of hunting.This space is not enough to have a full-fledged habitat for wild animals.
A territorial animal like a male tiger needs an area of 60-100 sq km. But the area allocated to an entire tiger reserve, like the Bor Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra, is 138.12 sq km. This is barely enough for one or two tigers.
The elephants need to travel at least 10-20 km a day. If a herd is restricted to an area of about 100 sq km, they are bound to move out in search of food and water. Elephants are used to travelling long distances, most of which fall outside the protected areas.
The condition of the existing protected areas is not very good, either. Wildlife experts claim that territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey do not have enough fodder to thrive on. This is forcing the wild animals to move out and venture close to human habitation in search of food.
The population of monkeys has multiplied after their natural habitat was destroyed because of their ability to adapt to new habitats. In forests, a Rhesus macaque has to spend about 10 to 14 hours in search of food. However, if we look at the street-dwelling urban monkeys or even those living dangerously close to human settlements in a rural setting, finding food takes only 10 minutes.When there is food in abundance, monkeys spend more time procreating.
A primary reason for the increasing human-animal conflicts is the presence of a large number of animals and birds outside the notified protected areas. Wildlife experts estimate that 29 per cent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas. “If we take their number to be 2,200, the tigers outside the protected areas are about 640. This is almost twice the number of tigers found in Russia.